We Can Change!

WeCanChange.US

We Can Change Our Wicked Problems!

Immigration

Every human in the U.S. has a history of some family member immigrating to the U.S. at some point.  Each of the U.S. Founding Fathers was a direct or indirect immigrant.  Even natives are believed to have migrated from Asia.  Everybody’s an immigrant, far enough back, maybe also a slave.  Same most places.  14 of 25 of the largest U.S. tech companies have immigrant founders.[1]  We’re all immigrants.

The U.S. has long been held up as a source of hope and encouragement for humanity around the world, a place people can come and live according to high-minded and just ideals, principles and laws, with abounding opportunities to create and live good lives.  We have welcomed guests and new neighbors. 

The Statue of Liberty is one of the most important symbols in the U.S.  The plaque at its base reads:

Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore.  Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!

An immigrant chooses to move to another country, which takes openness, trust and courage.  A refugee is an immigrant who also flees harm and abuse in one country to take refuge or find safety in another.  66% of U.S. people support taking in refugees.[2]  49 countries accept them at higher rates than us,[3] and we capped numbers of refugees accepted at 30,000 in 2019, down a third from 45,000 in 2018.[4] 

Our President, founder of “birther” lie President Obama was born in Kenya, spread long after proven false, tries to ban Muslims entering the country, says all Haitians have AIDS, calls developing countries “shitholes,” works us up to fear people outside the U.S. as threats to safety and livelihoods,[5] stops currency with a black person on it,[6] calls Mexican immigrants criminals and rapists, highlights crimes by African Americans, calls white supremacists “very fine people,” is endorsed by the Ku Klux Klan, and traffics anti-Semitic cartoons.[7]  Hate crimes increased 226% in places he’s held rallies.[8]  Is he racist?

He has the U.S. trying to keep others out of the U.S., restricting visas and border crossings; using our police state apparatus to attack and deport undocumented workers in the country;[9] weaponizing the census;[10] stoking racism and base emotions and behaviors to blame and harm “outsiders.”

 

It isn’t just the U.S. doing this.  This is a big problem in Europe.  2015 to 2017, more than a million asylum seekers and economic migrants entered the E.U., the largest influx of displaced people in Europe since World War II.[11]  77% of Europeans support accepting refugees,[12] but anti-immigrant/refugee sentiments are being whipped into rising support for nationalist parties in all European countries.[13]

According to the U.N., a record 68 million people have fled their homes because of war, violence and persecution, creating populations of 25 million refugees and 40 million internally displaced.  85% are from developing countries, 68% from 5 countries:  Syria 6.3 million, Afghanistan 2.6 million, South Sudan 2.4 million, Myanmar 1.2 million, and Somalia 1 million.[14]  The U.S. has interfered and committed violence in at least 4 of those 5.  Our “War on Terror” is active in 39% of the world’s countries.[15]

This old, tried-and-true scapegoating and fear-mongering manipulation is being used to divert our attention from wicked problems and corruption of U.S. institutions and systems, the many ways greedy profiteering is abusing the public, and who is responsible for that, and to deflect it onto those trying to immigrate to or find asylum in the U.S., and onto other groups of innocent people.  That’s what the Nazis did to Jewish, black, gypsy, disabled and homosexual people in Germany.  Blame somebody else. 

The term “scapegoating” is from the Bible’s Old Testament, Leviticus, Chapter 16, in which God told Moses and Aaron to sacrifice two goats every year.  The first goat was killed and had its blood splashed on the Ark of the Covenant.  The High Priest was then to lay his hands on the head of the second goat, and unload on it the various sins of the people.  This second goat was not killed, but released into the wilderness, carrying the sins of the Jewish people, which they were then free of.  They ‘scaped a goat.

The ego defense of displacement plays an important role in scapegoating, in which uncomfortable feelings such as anger, frustration, envy, guilt, shame, and insecurity are displaced or redirected onto another, often more vulnerable, person or group. The scapegoats—outsiders, immigrants, minorities, deviants—are then persecuted, enabling the scapegoaters to discharge and distract from their negative feelings, which are replaced or overtaken by a crude but consoling sense of affirmation and self-righteous indignation…  The creation of a villain necessarily implies that of a hero, even if both are purely fictional.[16]

Scapegoating is dumping bad energies and actions on a patsy, who takes the fall instead of the guilty.  That’s what we did to witches in the colonial era.  Eve was Adam’s scapegoat.  Greeks did it to Socrates.  That’s what Christians did with the devil.  We are doing it to pretty much everyone, except those who actually have the power to do the things that are making us feel bad, and are actually doing them.

Citizens are told to fear all Muslims and people from Muslim countries, because they’re terrorists who mean to do us harm, and all Muslims must be kept out of the country in order to be safe, when, by far, most Muslims are peaceful, and we are thousands of times more likely to be attacked and killed by a local white U.S. Christian citizen with a gun or our own poisons than a Muslim anywhere in the world.[17]

Our current President shut down the government to try to force us to build a very long and expensive wall along the border with Mexico to keep foreigners out, costing $6 to $20 billion (0.5-1.7% of FADS).  Meanwhile, inside the U.S., thousands of infrastructure projects beg for funding; people are homeless and hungry; income and wealth inequality are near breaking points; we’re running the biggest punitive prison system ever; we’re changing the climate and making life sick with our pollution and indifference; we’re going bankrupt to maximize profits for healthcare; we’re killing each other with guns, as if at war; we have suicide, opiate and obesity epidemics; government and legal systems are corrupt; we have the most byzantine tax system in history; our education system is failing; and people are undereducated, addicted to and distracted by media, substances and entertainment, with unreal expectations.[18] 

We’re told we have a huge problem with immigrants from the south assaulting, raping and murdering U.S. citizens.  Actually, immigrants commit crimes at far lower rates than citizens.  We’re told Mexico will pay for the wall, which Mexico denies, or Mexico will pay for it via a renegotiated trade agreement, which doesn’t work that way.  We’re told that’s the way to stop heroin from being smuggled into the country and causing our tragic opiate addiction crisis, when that starts with U.S. pharmaceuticals from doctors in the healthcare system, and most heroin enters the country through legal points of entry. 

 

We’re told thousands of terrorists are nabbed on our southern border, trying to sneak in and hurt us, when the number is almost zero.  We’re told there is an unprecedented and growing crisis of illegal immigration across the southern border, when real numbers are half what they were a decade ago.[19]  Since 2012, there have been more Mexicans moving out of the U.S. than into it.[20]  In 2018, record numbers of all kinds of U.S. citizens wanted to leave the U.S. forever.[21]

We’re told immigrants take more than they give from taxpayers.  In fact, immigrants pay more taxes than they get in government benefits.  Immigration’s net impact on economic growth is positive. 

1st-generation immigrants cost governments more than native-born citizens per year, $1,600 per person, but 2nd generation immigrants are among the best U.S. economic contributors, at $1,700.  On average, native-born citizens, including 3rd generation immigrants, contribute $1,300 per year. 

Undocumented immigrants pay $11.6 billion (1% of FADS) a year in taxes.  Immigrants are also less likely to take public benefits than native-born, because:  1) to get most public benefits, they must be lawful permanent residents at least 5 years.  9 million are, but many aren’t, or don’t qualify because incomes are too high, 2) many won’t take public benefits, even if eligible, because of cultural pride, or fear of being a drain or getting in trouble, and 3) the gumption it takes to immigrate is plenty to be successful in the U.S.

We’re told to fear people from south of the border sneaking in to the U.S. to steal our jobs.  Actually, our jobs are being exported by corporations to other countries and displaced by technologies, so they and their owners can make higher profits.  And, immigrants in the U.S. do work most of the rest of us are no longer willing to do, like hard physical construction, farm and other labor, which someone has to do or society collapses.  Few experts believe they’re taking jobs away from citizens.  Immigrants are 15% more likely to work off-hours than U.S.-born workers.  They are more likely to work in dangerous jobs.  The economy is now performing well enough to absorb large numbers of workers, including immigrants.

We’re told our economy doesn’t need immigrants.  In fact, immigrants are key to offsetting our falling birth rate, now at 1.8 per female, down from 3.7 in 1960.  2.1 keeps the population stable.  Without immigrants, our workforce would be shrinking, making problems for the government.   Social Security, paid into by current workers, would be in even more trouble than it is without immigrants paying into it.  Economic growth would likely stagnate or contract, as in Japan, where population is shrinking and there are few immigrants.  Immigrants increase demand for goods and services, which lifts economic growth.

We’re told it would be better for the economy if immigrants’ children wouldn’t get citizenship.  In fact, children with citizenship become more productive.  The President criticized the 14th Amendment, passed after the Civil War and guaranteeing citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” including former slaves.  He said the idea was “a crazy, lunatic policy” allowing “hundreds of thousands of children born to illegal immigrants” to become citizens each year.  Research shows ending birthright citizenship could have significant costs for the U.S. economy.[22]  He tells us 23 lies per day now.[23] 

These are demonstrated lies.  It’s misdirection, textbook scapegoating.  Look, a squirrel, an evil squirrel that is responsible for all the harm we are suffering!  Just don’t look behind the curtain!  We’re ignorant if we don’t recognize it after having it used on us so many times in our personal and collective histories. 

The U.S. "zero-tolerance" policy for people trying to cross the border, many planning to seek asylum, places offenders in custody and prosecutes them criminally for illegal entry.  In this process, we took thousands of minors from their parents, to be sent to a relative, foster home or shelter.  After those were full, 13,000 were sent to internment camps, like Japanese citizens were sent to in World War 2.  No other country has a policy of separating families seeking asylum, anywhere.[24]

Pretend you’re a child far from home, after some crazy hopeful odyssey to seek a better life in the U.S., fleeing violence and suffering, parents your only source of stability.  U.S. cops arrest you, take you from your parents, bus you in the night to live in a concentration camp,[25] sleep on the cold floor, with no soap, bathing or toothbrush,[26] no play, school or books, for months with thousands of other kids, abandoned, afraid, abused, knowing little of your parents, caring for infants without diapers.[27] [28]  We’re doing that, to 13,000 migrant children, while officials tried to stop journalists from reporting it.[29]  At least 6 have died in prison.[30]  Workers at our minor camps have been charged with sexual abuse.[31]  We made a 6-year-old appear alone in immigration court.[32]  We pay $775 a night per child for this,[33] 3-4 times more than it would cost to house their whole family together in downtown luxury hotels.[34]  Is that who we are now, people who abuse innocent children?[35]  Housing for parents is compared to torture facilities, with 900 jammed into one with a capacity of 125,[36] drinking from toilets.[37] 

What’s wrong with these countries that people can’t just stay there, instead of coming to our country?  Good question.  Well, let’s see, for the U.S., south of the border:

Mexico – Prior to western interventions, Mexico was part of a series of cultures and civilizations that thrived in the Americas over 3,000 years, including the Olmecs, Toltecs, Mayas and Aztecs, some with cities, cultures and wealth exceeding European counterparts at the time.  Cortés arrived from Spain in 1519 and was welcomed as a god by a population of 15 to 30 million.  By 1600, only 2 million remained, the rest murdered or killed by disease, the existing civilizations mostly destroyed,[38] and Spain looted, controlled, dominated and exploited those who remained.  Skin color determined social status.

In 1808, Napoleon occupied Spain, took over Mexico and sent his brother to rule it.  When Napoleon was defeated, Spain regained control.  After a series of revolts, Mexico gained its independence in 1821.  From 1821 to the mid-1860s, it was invaded by 3 different countries, lost big chunks of land to the U.S. and had almost 50 changes of head of state.  Dominant figures were almost all men of Spanish origin, and/or ambitious soldiers.  Santa Anna, who deposed independent Mexico’s first head of state, Emperor Agustín I, in 1823, was elected president in 1833, the first of his 11 terms in 22 years, during which the presidency changed hands 36 times.  He lost Texas in a war started by the Republic of Texas in 1836.[39] 

1846-1848, the U.S. attacked Mexico in the name of “Manifest Destiny,” basically that God wanted the U.S. to have all the land between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, starting the Mexican-American War, which ended up stealing a third of Mexico’s territory, including almost all of California, Utah, Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico.[40]  Then, Mexico was manipulated into selling much of New Mexico and Arizona to the U.S. for $10 million in the Gadsden Purchase in 1853.[41]   

In 1862, French Emperor Napoleon III set up a French state in Mexico, with Maximilian of Habsburg, Archduke of Austria, as Emperor of Mexico.  The U.S. did nothing.[42]  In 1866, Mexico regained control, and Benito Juarez became President, under the maxim “Respect for the rights of others is peace.” 

1876 to 1911 Mexico entered the industrial age, with public works projects, but political opposition, free elections and a free press were banned, peasants were cheated of lands, workers had awful conditions, and the country was dominated by a ruthless army.  Land and wealth were concentrated in few hands.

That was followed in 1910 by the Mexican Revolution, 10 years of violent fighting and upheaval costing two million lives and crushing the economy.  1920 to 2000, Mexico was ruled by one political party, which since the 1940s has been called the Party of Institutional Revolution (PRI).[43]  (Amusing)

In 1994, Mexico, the U.S. and Canada entered into the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).  1994 to 2010, U.S. companies sent 683,000 U.S. jobs to lower-wage Mexico, 80% in manufacturing.  Many companies didn’t move jobs to Mexico, but from 1993 to 1995, 50% of U.S. companies in industries moving to Mexico used threats of closing factories and moving to Mexico to break up unions and negotiate lower wages for U.S. workers.  By 1999, 65% of them were doing that.  Did Mexicans take those jobs and cause U.S. wages to be lower, or did U.S. companies and the U.S. government? 

In 2002, the U.S. subsidized its agribusiness up to 40% of net income, letting them export corn and grains to Mexico below cost.  Mexican farmers couldn’t compete with that and lost 1.3 million farm jobs.  In response to these competitive pressures, Mexican agribusiness used more fertilizers and chemicals, costing $36 billion per year in pollution, and farmers expanded into marginal lands, resulting in deforestation at 2,400 square miles (6,300 km2) per year, and other great environmental harms.

NAFTA expanded the maquiladora program, in which U.S. companies employ Mexican workers near the border to cheaply assemble products for export back to the U.S., by removing tariffs.  It came to employ 30% of Mexico's labor force.  Its workers have almost no labor rights or health protections, with workdays of 12 hours or more, and women required to take pregnancy tests when applying for jobs.[44]

There is definitely a drug trafficking problem in Mexico.  Since 2006, the Mexican government has been fighting a war with drug traffickers, and drug cartels have fought each other for control of territory.  150,000 intentional homicides in Mexico since 2006 were organized crime-related.  Mexican drug cartels earn $19 to $29 billion (1.6%-2.5% of FADS) annually from illegal drug sales in the US.[45]  Mexico would not experience the violence, fear and displacement around this unless there was U.S. demand for drugs.  We want those drugs, but our government makes them illegal, which creates that situation.

El Salvador – In 1932, a peasant rebellion challenged the government’s authority.  10,000-40,000 rebels, many indigenous, were systematically murdered by the military leader’s regime.  The U.S. and Britain, which had financed the economy and owned most of its export-focused coffee plantations and railways, sent navies to end it.  In 1944, a student-led bloodless popular revolt ousted its leader.  With U.S. help, the old party was reinstalled and recognized by the U.S.  In 1960, new leaders promised free elections.  The U.S. didn’t recognize it, but rather helped a right-wing coup seize power and kill the democracy.  

1980–1992, there was a civil war between the military-led government and a leftist rebellion.  The U.S. gave military help to the authoritarian government, basically running the war by 1983 and training the armed forces, including those that committed a 1981 civilian massacre, killing 1,000 unarmed civilians, including women and children.  80,000 people were killed in that war, 85% by U.S. supported Salvador military and death squads, according to the U.N. 

In 1984, during the U.S. funded war, only 3% of U.S. Salvadoran asylum cases were approved, because we denied human rights violation allegations and instead termed asylum seekers “economic migrants.”  U.S. religious sanctuary movements defied our government, sponsored and sheltered asylum seekers, while the U.S. sent $1.4 million to support the military government in the election.  In 1990, Congress passed legislation giving Salvadorans Temporary Protected Status.  In 2018, the President ended that status for the 200,000 Salvadorans living in the U.S. 

In 2006, El Salvador joined the Dominican Republic–Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), an export-economy model giving multinational corporations increased power over local domestic trade and protections, protested by thousands of local farmers and workers.  In 2014, the U.S. threatened to withhold $300 million in development aid unless El Salvador ended all preferences for locally sourced corn and bean seeds under its Family Agriculture Plan, harming local farmers.  Since 2015, all U.S. industrial and commercial goods enter El Salvador duty free, making it virtually impossible for local industries to compete.  In 2016, the country had a negative trade balance of $4 billion.  Now, the local economy is struggling, its people are suffering, and some of them come to seek refuge in the U.S.  Would you, if that’s what you thought was necessary to give your family a chance at a good life?

Honduras – In 1911, a U.S. entrepreneur, the deposed Honduran President and a U.S. General staged a coup, and after seizing northern Honduran ports, gained the presidency.  In 1912, U.S. corporate backers got natural resource grants and tax incentives.  By 1914, U.S. banana companies owned a million acres of its best land, frequently protected by U.S. military forces.  In 1975, one paid a $1.25 million bribe to cut banana export taxes.  In the 1980s, to stem leftist movements in Central America, the U.S. put thousands of its troops in Honduras to train Nicaraguan Contra right-wing rebels in a guerrilla war against Nicaragua’s Sandinista government.  U.S. military aid was $77.5 million in 1984.  Forced trade liberalization opened Honduras to global capital and disrupted traditional agriculture.

In 2005, Honduras joined CAFTA, under protests from unions and local farmers who feared destruction by big-scale U.S. producers.  Quickly, Honduras went from a net agricultural exporter to a net importer, killing small-scale farm jobs.  In 2009, a democratically elected President pursued progressive policies, like raising the minimum wage and funding public transportation.  After calling for a referendum to replace its 1982 constitution, from U.S.-backed military dictator rule, he was exiled by a military coup.  Its leader was a graduate of the U.S. Army School of the Americas (AKA School of Assassins).  The U.S. did not join international calls for the “immediate and unconditional return” of the elected President.

In 2017, Honduras had an electoral crisis as thousands of suffering protesters contested presidential election results, alleged to be rigged by the ruling party.  Would you try to get out of there?

Guatemala – In 1920, Guatemala’s President, a U.S. corporate ally, who’d conceded to a giant U.S. fruit company, was overthrown in a coup.  The U.S. sent military to make sure the new president supported U.S. corporate interests.  In 1947, Guatemala’s “worker’s government” made labor codes giving Guatemalan workers rights to unionize and claim pay raises for the first time.  The U.S. intervened. 

In 1952, Guatemala initiated reforms, including:  a social security system, offices for native concerns, a public health system and labor laws.  It redistributed land to 500,000 mostly native poor as small farms, by taking fallow lands from a U.S. fruit company and paying for it the value the company had declared for tax purposes (below its real value).  In 1954, the U.S., in a CIA covert operation, arranged an invasion from Honduras by exiled Guatemalan military officers, ousting the democratically elected President, ending 10 years of democratic rule, called the “ten years of spring,” and putting in an authoritarian government that reinstated secret police, reversed land reforms, crushed workers’ movements and required literacy for voting, which excluded 75% of the people. 

In 1965, the CIA sent Green Berets and advisors to help the régime end movements engaging people to “struggle against the government and landowners.”   In the 1970s, 50,000 people were killed.  In 1981, its army attacked the guerrilla movement, bombing villages, and executing citizens with U.S. military equipment and a $2 billion covert CIA program.  In 1982, a 2nd U.S.-backed military coup put in a President who was convicted of genocide for trying to exterminate the indigenous Maya Ixil people.  Many, mostly indigenous men were murdered in the name of anti-insurgency, anticommunism and stabilization in a scorched-earth strategy called “la escoba,” the broom, because of the way the reign of terror swept over the country.  By 1996, when peace arrived after 36 years of civil war, 200,000 civilians had been killed; 250,000 had fled as refugees to Mexico; and a million were homeless.  Military and government officials were tried for destroying 400 Mayan villages in a genocide campaign.[46] [47] [48]

In 2006, Guatemala joined the CAFTA-DR free trade deal.  Now, 95% of U.S. agricultural exports enter the country duty free, killing local competition and livelihoods and creating suffering.[49]

There are similar histories of western exploitation creating current problems in other Central and Latin American countries.  There are similar stories for European nations experiencing immigration issues.  The middle east and Africa have been exploited and abused since at least the colonial era, and it is often wars and problems caused by western interests that create humanitarian crises and displacement leading people to flee their homes in desperation to find stability and livelihood for their loved ones. 

Iraq – in one of the original cradles of civilization, the fertile crescent of Mesopotamia, part of the Ottoman Empire, was created in 1917, as Britain took it in World War 1, drawing lines arbitrarily on a map and lumping ethnic rivals together unnaturally.  In 1932, it got independence.  Britain reoccupied it, temporarily, in World War 2.  In 1979, Saddam Hussein took power, ruling authoritatively.  In 1990, he invaded Kuwait.  The U.S. launched a war to stop that, to protect its oil interests.  In 1991, he showed his armaments inventories, including no WMDs or biological weapons.  In 2002, the U.S. President declared Iraq, Iran and North Korea an "axis of evil'' that threatened the U.S.  2002-3, Iraq submitted a 12,000-page report of its arms, verified by the U.N., that included no weapons of mass destruction. 

2003, the U.S. launched a war on Iraq, based on anti-terrorist fervor after the 9-11 attacks and lies that Iraq had verified weapons of mass destruction intended for use against the U.S..  Baghdad was taken.  There were no weapons of mass destruction.  Nobody in the U.S. was harmed by anyone in Iraq, ever.  In 2019, the U.S. military is still in Iraq, still conducting military operations and controlling its oil.[50]

600,000 Iraqis died since the war began.[51]  Almost as many Iraqi children died from western sanctions, prior to the war.[52]  3 million people are now displaced in Iraq, 9 million needing humanitarian aid.[53]  These and other issues outraged and incited other regional problems, like in Syria, where 12 million people have been displaced, half the population, the world’s largest forcibly displaced population.[54]  These are but some of the displacements and harm done by western interventions in the Middle East. 

In a way, countries with current immigration problems are experiencing karma?  Would you try to bring your loved ones to the U.S. or some other place of relative stability if that was the only thing you could think of that might bring the violence and fear to an end and provide loved ones a hope of a good life?  One in every 110 people globally is now either a refugee, an asylum seeker or internally displaced.[55]

The fear, hate, anger, resentment and abuse we’re scapegoating at harmed immigrants is misdirected.  It doesn’t make common sense, and it doesn’t feel good, because most of us want to be open, good and generous people?  We don’t intend to harm these people?  We have to learn to live with each other and our guests, be responsible for our own problems, which we create, and open our hearts and minds and collectively change how we think about and deal with immigration and others.  We can change! 

Fix the problems, rather than judge and punish others in blame, allowing the real problems to continue!  Be open to life and other people!  Expect the best of others until we have reason to know otherwise!  Look honestly at situations and be honest in assigning responsibility for problems!  Call out the lies! 

 

Focus on the solutions, not blame!  Don’t be a patsy, and don’t allow others to make others patsies!  Resist our government’s efforts to close all overseas offices of Citizenship and Immigration Services![56]  Welcome and be hospitable to guests, including foreign guests!  Boycott those profiting from this![57]

Let’s help others where they live, so they have good lives there and don’t feel compelled to move here!  Let’s stop interfering with others attempts to create good lives for themselves where they live!  Let’s stop harming others elsewhere in our attempts to accrue riches to support our egos where we live!

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Endnotes

 

[1] “Internet Trends 2018”, Mary Meeker, Kleiner Perkins, https://www.kleinerperkins.com/perspectives/internet-trends-report-2018/

[2] “Survey: Despite crisis, most Europeans still welcome refugees”, Reuters, PRI, September 19, 2018, https://www.pri.org/stories/2018-09-19/survey-despite-crisis-most-europeans-still-welcome-refugees

[3] “49 Nations Accept Asylees & Refugees at Higher Rates Than America”, David Bier, The Cato Institute, July 20, 2018, https://www.cato.org/blog/49-nations-accept-asylees-refugees-higher-rates-america

[4] “Survey: Despite crisis, most Europeans still welcome refugees”, Reuters, PRI, September 19, 2018, https://www.pri.org/stories/2018-09-19/survey-despite-crisis-most-europeans-still-welcome-refugees

[5] “A President Who Fans, Rather Than Douses, the Nation’s Racial Fires”, Peter Baker, The New York Times, January 12, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/12/us/politics/trump-racism.html

[6] “The real reason Trump won't put Harriet Tubman on $20 bill”, Dorothy Brown, CNN, June 14, 2019, https://www.cnn.com/2019/06/14/opinions/harriet-tubman-trump-race-brown/index.html

[7] “Donald Trump’s Racism: The Definitive List”, David Leonhardt & Ian Prasad Philbrick, New York Times, January 15, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/01/15/opinion/leonhardt-trump-racist.html

[8] “Hate crimes increased 226% in places Trump held a campaign rally in 2016, study claims”, David Choi, Business Insider, March 23, 2019, https://www.businessinsider.com/trump-campaign-rally-hate-crimes-study-maga-2019-3?fbclid=IwAR3XzrmoDJCm_ezAlSL22hebDvaNVH-7AT7dWl1r1LjDZRJyPCOLM3mnlUc&sfns=mo

[9] “US workplace immigration raids surge 400% in 2018:  Number has soared as Trump administration cracks down on undocumented immigrants”, Clark Mindock, The Independent, December 12, 2018, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/ice-immigration-workplace-migrants-undocumented-immigrants-raids-trump-obama-2018-a8678746.html

[10] “They Know That America Isn’t Great: The Trump administration plans to rig the Census to protect white Republican power”, Jamil Smith, Rolling Stone, June 1, 2019, https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-features/census-rigging-trump-republicans-842846/

[11] “The future of Europe’s elections will be all about migration, foreign minister says”, Natasha Turak, CNBC, June 1 2018

https://www.cnbc.com/2018/06/01/the-future-of-europes-elections-will-be-all-about-migration.html

[12] “A majority of Europeans favor taking in refugees, but most disapprove of EU’s handling of the issue,” Phillip Connor, Pew Research Center, September 19, 2018, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/09/19/a-majority-of-europeans-favor-taking-in-refugees-but-most-disapprove-of-eus-handling-of-the-issue/

[13] “Europe and nationalism: A country-by-country guide”, BBC News, September 10, 2018, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-36130006

[14] “The displaced: In pictures and numbers”, Raidió Teilifís Éireann, June 20, 2018, https://www.rte.ie/news/newslens/2018/0619/971627-people-worldwide-displaced/

[15] “A New Map Shows the Alarming Spread of the US War on Terror:  American counterterrorism forces are in far, far more countries than you realize.”, Tom Engelhardt, The Nation, January 4, 2018, https://www.thenation.com/article/a-new-map-shows-the-alarming-spread-of-the-us-war-on-terror/

[16] “The Psychology of Scapegoating:  Is the time ripe for a new wave of scapegoating?, Neel Burton, M.D., Psychology Today, Updated 24 December 24, 2018, https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/hide-and-seek/201312/the-psychology-scapegoating

[17] “The odds that a gun will kill the average American may surprise you”, Dave Mosher and Skye Gould, Business Insider, October 29, 2018, https://www.businessinsider.com/us-gun-death-murder-risk-statistics-2018-3

[18] See chapters on these topics

[19] “Here Are the Facts Behind President Trump's Border Claims”, Abby Vesoulis, Tara law and Gina Martinez, Time, Updated: January 8, 2019, http://time.com/5497260/donald-trump-border-wall-fact-check/

[20] “Even before Trump, more Mexicans were leaving the U.S. than arriving”, Max Bearak, The Washington Post, January 27, 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2017/01/27/even-before-trump-more-mexicans-were-leaving-the-us-than-arriving/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.51a5c7c14130

[21] “Record-Breaking Number Of Americans Want To Get Out Of U.S. Forever” The percentage of Americans wanting to jump ship is markedly higher under the Trump administration than it was under his predecessors.”, Amy Russo, The Huffington Post, January 5, 2019, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/americans-want-to-leave_us_5c302e4fe4b0d75a9830d1cc?ncid=APPLENEWS00001

[22] “4 myths about how immigrants affect the U.S. economy”, Making Sen$e, PBS, November 2, 2018, https://www.pbs.org/newshour/economy/making-sense/4-myths-about-how-immigrants-affect-the-u-s-economy

[23] “President Trump has made more than 10,000 false or misleading claims: Unraveling President Trump's more than 10,000 false and misleading claims | The Fact Checker”, Glenn Kessler, Salvador Rizzo and Meg Kelly, The Washington Post, April 29, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/04/29/president-trump-has-made-more-than-false-or-misleading-claims/?utm_term=.3a3831ebb0a6

[24] “Separation of migrant families: What other countries do”, Hugo Bachega, BBC News, 7 June 2018, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-44374756

[25] “The Unimaginable Reality of American Concentration Camps”, Masha Gessen, The New Yorker, June 21, 2019, https://www.newyorker.com/news/our-columnists/the-unimaginable-reality-of-american-concentration-camps?utm_medium=social&utm_social-type=owned&utm_source=facebook&utm_brand=tny&mbid=social_facebook&sfns=mo

[26] “Trump Administration Argues Detained Migrant Children Don’t Need Toothbrushes, Soap”, Nicole Goodkind, Newsweek, June 20, 2019, https://www.newsweek.com/migrant-children-border-trump-administration-1445090?sfns=mo

[27] “Trump administration cancels English classes, soccer, legal aid for unaccompanied child migrants in U.S. shelters”, Maria Sacchetti, The Washington Post, June 5, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/immigration/trump-administration-cancels-english-classes-soccer-legal-aid-for-unaccompanied-child-migrants-in-us-shelters/2019/06/05/df2a0008-8712-11e9-a491-25df61c78dc4_story.html?utm_term=.426a02d3e0d1

[28] “A firsthand report of ‘inhumane conditions’ at a migrant children’s detention facility”, PBS News Hour, June 21, 2019, https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/a-firsthand-report-of-inhumane-conditions-at-a-migrant-childrens-detention-facility?sfns=mo

[29] “This is the reality of Trump’s America”, Eugene Robinson, Washington Post, June 24, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/this-is-a-humanitarian-crisis-of-trumps-making/2019/06/24/431262f8-96c3-11e9-8d0a-5edd7e2025b1_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.3558eacb4c74

[30] “This might be Trump's worst cover-up”, Dean Obeidallah, CNN, May 27, 2019, https://www.cnn.com/2019/05/26/opinions/trump-migrant-child-death-cover-up-opinion-obeidallah/index.html

[31] “13,000 migrant children in detention: America's horrifying reality”, Alice Driver, October 1, 2018, CNN, https://www.cnn.com/2018/10/01/opinions/13000-migrant-children-horrifying-reality-driver/index.html

[32] “A Defendant Shows Up in Immigration Court by Himself. He’s 6”, Eva Ruth Moravec, ProPublica, November 27, 2018, https://www.propublica.org/article/6-year-old-in-immigration-court-by-himself-zero-tolerance-family-separation

[33] “Trump admin's 'tent cities' cost more than keeping migrant kids with parents: Separating migrant kids from their parents will cost the administration more than placing them in permanent structures or keeping them with their parents.”, Julia Ainsley, NBC News, June 20, 2018, https://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/immigration-border-crisis/trump-admin-s-tent-cities-cost-more-keeping-migrant-kids-n884871

[34] “The cost of hotel room per night in largest cities of U.S.”, Ali Raza, Medium, August 26, 2018, https://medium.com/@lagoonend8900/the-cost-of-hotel-room-per-night-in-largest-cities-of-u-s-e8ac21516b6f

[35] “A Honduran Father Is Reunited With His Daughter, 10 Months After Being Separated”, John Burnett, NPR, March 14, 2019, https://www.npr.org/2019/03/14/703273849/a-honduran-father-is-reunited-with-his-daughter-10-months-after-being-separated

[36] “Doctor compares conditions for unaccompanied children at immigrant holding centers to 'torture facilities'”, Serena Marshall, Lana Zak and Jennifer Metz, ABC News, June 23, 2019, https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/doctor-compares-conditions-immigrant-holding-centers-torture-facilities/story?id=63879031&sfns=mo

[37] “Drinking Out of Toilets: The Conditions in Border Patrol Facilities Are Beyond Horrifying: Reps. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-NY) and Joaquin Castro (D-TX) were among the lawmakers to visit CBP facilities on Monday. What they saw was appalling”, Ryan Bort, Rolling Stone, July 2, 2019, https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/border-patrol-facilities-conditions-aoc-democrats-854586/

[38] “When half of the population died: the epidemic of hemorrhagic fevers of 1576 in Mexico”, Rodofo Acuna‐Soto, David W. Stahle, Matthew D. Therrell, Richard D. Griffin, Malcolm K. Cleaveland, January 9, 2006, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1016/j.femsle.2004.09.011

[39] “Mexico:  History”, Lonely Planet, Accessed January 14, 2019, https://www.lonelyplanet.com/mexico/history

[40] “Mexican-American War”, Accessed January 14, 2019, History.com, https://www.history.com/topics/mexican-american-war/mexican-american-war

[41] “Mexico:  History”, Lonely Planet, Accessed January 14, 2019, https://www.lonelyplanet.com/mexico/history

[42] “French Intervention in Mexico and the American Civil War, 1862–1867”, U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian, https://history.state.gov/milestones/1861-1865/french-intervention

[43] “Mexico:  History”, Lonely Planet, Accessed January 14, 2019, https://www.lonelyplanet.com/mexico/history

[44] “Six Problems With NAFTA”, Kimberly Amadeo, The Balance, Updated November 15, 2018, https://www.thebalance.com/disadvantages-of-nafta-3306273

[45] “Mexico Drug War Fast Facts”, CNN, Updated July 16, 2018, https://edition.cnn.com/2013/09/02/world/americas/mexico-drug-war-fast-facts/index.html

[46] “US Has Killed More Than 20 Million People in 37 “Victim Nations” Since World War II”, James A. Lucas, Global Research, January 20, 2019, https://www.globalresearch.ca/us-has-killed-more-than-20-million-people-in-37-victim-nations-since-world-war-ii/5492051

[47] “A Century of U.S. Intervention Created the Immigration Crisis:  Those seeking asylum today inherited a series of crises that drove them to the border”, Mark Tseng-Putterman, Medium, June 20, 2018, https://medium.com/s/story/timeline-us-intervention-central-america-a9bea9ebc148

[48] “History”, Guatemala, Lonely Planet, Accessed February 6, 2019, https://www.lonelyplanet.com/guatemala/history

[49] “A Century of U.S. Intervention Created the Immigration Crisis:  Those seeking asylum today inherited a series of crises that drove them to the border”, Mark Tseng-Putterman, Medium, June 20, 2018, https://medium.com/s/story/timeline-us-intervention-central-america-a9bea9ebc148

[50] “Iraq Fast Facts”, CNN, Updated October 18, 2018, https://edition.cnn.com/2013/10/30/world/meast/iraq-history-fast-facts/index.html

[51] “15 years after the Iraq War began, the death toll is still murky”, Philip Bump, The Washington Post, March 20, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/politics/wp/2018/03/20/15-years-after-it-began-the-death-toll-from-the-iraq-war-is-still-murky/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.7a96bfe0fd7b

[52] “Iraq Sanctions Kill Children, U.N. Reports”, Barbara Crossette, The New York Times, December 1, 1995, https://www.nytimes.com/1995/12/01/world/iraq-sanctions-kill-children-un-reports.html

[53] “Iraq conflict: Facts, FAQs, and how to help”, Accessed January 14, 2019, World Vision, https://www.worldvision.org/refugees-news-stories/iraq-conflict-facts

[54] “Global Trends At-a-Glance”, U.N. Refugee Agency, Accessed January 15, 2019, https://www.unrefugees.org/refugee-facts/statistics/

[55] “Global Trends At-a-Glance”, U.N. Refugee Agency, Accessed January 15, 2019, https://www.unrefugees.org/refugee-facts/statistics/

[56] “Trump administration preparing to close international immigration offices”, Maria Sacchetti and Nick Miroff, The Washington Post, March 12, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/trump-administration-preparing-to-close-international-immigration-offices/2019/03/12/e8db2be4-44d3-11e9-aaf8-4512a6fe3439_story.html?utm_term=.40a93089b0ac

[57] “These are the Companies Profiting from Detaining Migrants at Border Concentration Camps”, Lara Witt, Wear Your Voice, June 26, 2019, https://wearyourvoicemag.com/news-politics/companies-profit-migrants-detention?sfns=mo

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