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We Can Change Our Wicked Problems!

Human Rights and Freedoms

We rebelled against the King of England’s autocratic rule and demands, without checks and balances, allowing little freedom of speech, due process, or privacy, to create the United States of America.  Principles of the Enlightenment and rebel ideals and ideas were used to create a land ruled by law, above all to protect human rights, freedoms and dignities, sketched out in our Bill of Rights, and expanded on over time, by us and others, evolving over time with human growth and evolution.

In the 18 years of war since 9/11, and the resulting War on Terror, with an amorphous enemy that will always exist, and may grow given our behaviors, and in the abstract games of greed, growth and power in capitalist economics, we have lost and are losing many of those freedoms.  Many don’t know it, because we weren’t really taught our laws, rights and freedoms, in school or anywhere. 

Declaration of Independence

 

We have rights to life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness, and rebellion against unjust governments.

  • Are U.S. citizens failing to exercise our right of rebellion needed against government failings?

 

U.S. Constitution and Amendments

 

The U.S. Constitution and Amendments surpass all other law, mostly to provide our rights and freedoms.

  • Article I:  Section 8 – Only the U.S. Congress can pass laws, which is how we:

    • Regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, between States, and with native Americans

      • The President rather than Congress launches tariffs and trade wars by himself[1] producing record trade deficits[2] that hurt U.S. and foreign producers, workers and consumers.[3] [4]

    • Print Money and regulate its value

      • The U.S. prints 3% of U.S. money as a contractor to its banking system, which creates all money as debt, in amounts it chooses, which is what determines the value of our money, which has eroded 96% since this independent banking system was created in 1913.[5]

    • Declare War, authorize naval piracy, and make Rules about Captures on land and water

      • Congress has only declared war 6 times, yet the U.S. has conducted hundreds of wars and/or interventions in other countries killing 200 million people, and has military in 163 countries conducting a “Global War on Terror” wherever it wants, without Congress declaring war.[6]  War is not to be autocratically controlled by one person, but by representative democracy.

    • Raise, support and regulate a military, giving money for that for no more than 2 years

      • The Department of Defense doesn’t accurately account for the 77% of FADS it gets, so Congress doesn’t regulate it; DoD has money it uses more than 2 years; and Congress and the President provide inadequate oversight of U.S. military and intelligence operations.[7]

    • Execute all U.S. government Powers exercised by any U.S. Department or Officer

      • Congress has given much of this authority away to the President, such as war powers still in effect 18 years after authorized following 9/11, which are exercised all over the world.[8]

  • Article I:  Section 9 – The U.S. government can’t:

    • Restrict States from allowing foreign immigration or tax immigrants more than $10/person

      • Some States have Sanctuary laws because they need, accept and allow migrant farm/other workers as community members, 80% of U.S. citizens want illegal immigrants to have a "chance to become U.S. citizens,"[9] but Feds still conducts Immigration (ICE) raids there.[10]

    • Jail us without charges, punish us without trials, or do things to us illegally (Habeus Corpus)

      • The U.S. does hold citizens without charges.[11]  Florida holds citizens 40 days without charges, enough time to lose jobs and become homeless, for the half of U.S. people with no savings.[12]

      • In 95% of U.S. criminal cases, defendants take plea bargain deals (for lack money to pay bail or adequate defense, and public defense is limited) and are punished without trials.[13] [14] [15] 

    • Make something illegal and punish for it after the fact (Ex Post Facto)

      • The Supreme Court upheld laws requiring people to register as sex offenders for offenses committed prior to sex offender registration laws being passed, which punish offenders.[16]

    • Pass laws to punish or take things from specific people or groups (Bill of Attainder)

      • In “Civil Asset Forfeiture” government seizes cash, cars, or other property suspected of connection to criminal activity, even if the owners are never arrested for a crime.  In 80% of civil asset forfeitures, criminal charges are never filed against the property owners.  It’s widely used in the War on Drugs to steal from people associated with drug use or sale.[17]  

      • That War on Drugs also imprisons and strategically takes voting rights from millions of citizens, because drug use is correlated with certain political views and opposition.[18]

    • The government must publicly account for all money it gets and spends.

      • The Pentagon has not accounted for $21 trillion in funding, much of its spending is classified, and it routinely shifts moneys around in ways that are illegal and not publicly disclosed.

      • $80 billion intelligence budgets and expenses are classified and not publicly accounted for.[19]

      • Have you ever seen a comprehensible presentation of money government gets and spends?

    • No public official gets anything of value from foreign powers without Congress’ approval.

      • The current U.S. President profits from foreign and other payments to his hotel properties.[20]

  • Article II:  Section 1 – The Electoral College was created because most people in the 1700s had few ways to know President or Vice President candidates to cast informed votes on them.  So, we’d elect Electors[21] to go learn about them and vote how they believe people who elect them would want.

    • We have ways to know these candidates now, so this system is obsolete.  We don’t elect Electors; they’re State appointed.  States have rules that predetermine how Electors vote, and they’re not consistent across States.  (Some give all Elector votes to one person, and others proportionally).  That creates a system in which some votes count more than others, and there are ways to game the system to install Presidents with increasing powers.  Winning a voter majority in some states leads to more electoral votes than in others.  This leads to Presidents and Vice Presidents elected though they lose informed popular elections, undermining public faith in elections and creating voter alienation and despair.[22]  This is not fair, so it violates our rights to equality and fairness.

  • Article II:  Section 2 – The President can’t make agreements with other nations without a 2/3 approval of the Senate.

    • Through 2018, the current Administration proactively submitted one agreement to the Senate.  The U.S. makes 100+ international agreements annually, not counting those classified or unknown by Congress, and Congress is generally providing inadequate oversight.  The President reports agreements to Congress within 60 days of execution, maybe.  Maybe they’re approved by Congress afterwards, as the new NAFTA Agreement likely would be.  Almost all the rest happen via claimed statutory authorization granted years or decades before agreements, and don’t get any real after-the-fact review or approval by Congress.  Many are not even reported to Congress.  This at least raises concerns about legality, interest group capture and irresponsible/corrupt acts. 

    • There is no legally-required judicial review to ensure the executive stays within terms of legal authorities, and no requirement to report agreements to the public. 

    • Congress can’t really do anything about most, because repealing an agreement after the fact would likely require assembling almost impossible veto-proof majorities in both houses.[23]

  • Article II:  Section 4 – Government must fire any civil officer who commits a crime, or abuses or misuses their office, for example by obstructing justice, evading taxes, profiting from office…

    • Government representatives break the law often, and government fails to do this often.[24]

    • Many U.S. wars and interventions were illegal and involved many thousands of public officials, with very few people getting fired.[25] 

    • Government agents arrest citizens and non-citizens using illegally acquired information.[26]

    • The current Administration has many violations of law, with very few getting fired,[27]  and Congress is not holding the President accountable for his many violations of law?[28] 

  • Article III:  Section 2 – The U.S. justice system presides over all legal matters if the U.S. is party.

    • The judicial system cannot preside over matters for which the Executive branch makes it illegal or difficult in various ways for people to disclose what it does, in secret and not secret programs, because information needed to take legal action isn’t available, so legal actions are not taken.

  • Article IV:  Section 3 - Congress makes the rules regarding all property belonging to the U.S.

    • U.S. military makes rules for its properties.  The Executive branch makes rules for public lands.  The President can build a border wall, or do anything else he wants with U.S. property, by just declaring a National Emergency, or exercising war powers granted without specific focus?

  • 1st Amendment - Government can’t interfere with:

    • Our religious beliefs or practices (Freedom of Religion)

      • Historically, native Americans weren’t allowed to vote or counted in the census, because they were not Christian “souls.”  Until 1994, natives were not free to practice their religions.[29] 

      • Public schools illegally conduct prayers and religious indoctrination.[30] 

      • We print “In God We Trust” on money since 1956, not e pluribus unum, “of many, one.”[31] 

      • The President has actively tried to ban Muslims from the U.S.[32] 

    • People saying anything we want to (Freedom of Speech)

      • U.S. government employees are not free to say what is going on in their (especially classified) operations because of various legal and employee related restrictions. Whistleblowers and leakers are punished and/or prosecuted.[33]  Government doesn’t disclose it, so we can’t stop it.

      • Government Illegally surveils us to get private communications and profile and target us based on things in our communications, even books we read.[34]  Knowing it suppresses free speech. 

      • The President abused athletes and incited reprisals for kneeling during the national anthem.[35] 

      • Police interfere with people recording their actions.[36] 

      • Government suppresses some boycotts[37]  and has long censored media content.[38] 

      • Free speech rights largely do not apply in workplaces.[39]

    • Independent press freely gathering and sharing information with the public, so we have accurate information we need to evaluate government and hold it accountable (Freedom of the Press)

      • U.S. journalists' abilities to report are increasingly undermined by attacks, arrests, border stops, device searches, whistleblower prosecutions and restrictions on public information release.[40]  Huge and increasing amounts of government information is classified and unavailable to the press or public, like 78 million decisions to classify U.S. government information in 2014, though experts deemed 50% - 90% safe to release.[41]  Many journalists were arrested while doing their jobs in the U.S. in 2018, 5 killed, making the U.S. a top 5 country for journalist deaths.[42] [43]  The President limits White House press briefings, and attacks news agencies often.[44]

      • The U.S. allows 6 media companies to control 90% of media information the U.S. public reads, listens to or watches, and few people control those, allowing undue influence on the press,[45] like forcing TV stations to present the same biased “must run” news stories.[46] 

      • Fewer people get U.S. news via newspapers, TV and digital news outlets.[47]  2/3 of younger and 4/5 of older people in the U.S. can’t distinguish facts from opinions, part of many problems with public news and media literacy and critical thinking not addressed by public education, and many news outlets are increasingly opinionated.[48]  This is a government education failure?

      • Fake or biased news propaganda is allowed to be widely proliferated as “news” via social media, including Russia using Facebook[49] and Twitter[50] as designed to spread false news influencing 2016 elections.[51]  Government allows attacks on verified information provided by press.  Government lets Facebook, the U.S.’ largest news organization, do little to control the quality, sources or verify news on its U.S. and global network,[52]  weakening credibility of all news. 

      • In 2018, the U.S. press ranked 45th in the world for press freedom, just after Romania.[53] 

    • Us getting together any way we want, or engaging with government to try to make things right.  (Freedom to Assemble and Petition to Address Problems)

      • The U.S. stifled peaceful assembly and violated indigenous sovereign rights at Standing Rock, ending protests of oil pipeline risks to water, using private contractors as it does in war.[54]  

      • Occupy Wall Street protests were oppressed with arrests, beatings, tasers and mace.[55]  

      • In 2018, 575 people were arrested at a peaceful women's protest of our government taking 2,000 children from their parents and imprisoning them all in inhumane conditions.[56] [57]

      • We assemble anyway, 2-4 million at 6,000 protests, demonstrations, strikes, marches, sit-ins, rallies and walkouts in the U.S. in March 2018 alone, at least one in every state and D.C.[58]

  • 4th Amendment - Right to Privacy and Freedom from Search and Seizure - Government can’t just search and seize us, our information or our stuff, unless a specific legal warrant for exactly who is being searched, where is being searched, and exactly what’s being looked for is properly issued, by a court, based on a genuine belief something illegal is going on, which is supported by evidence.

    • U.S. government, spy agencies and contractors gather a very wide variety of information, they can use, proactively or retroactively, to persecute or manipulate anyone, in or out of the U.S.  Satellites, drones, camera networks, GPS and IP address location tracking, email interception, Internet browsing surveillance, phone taps, computer hacking, social media monitoring, hacking microphones and cameras in electronic devices, accessing financial transaction histories, monitoring library checkouts, hacking vehicle computer systems, and many other forms of surveillance are used in the U.S. regularly, by its spying and law enforcement organizations, most without warrants, or with warrants approved retroactively, if they find something.[59]

    • Police can use physical force to arrest anyone at any time, and all we can do about it is sue them afterwards to try to prove they did not have adequate cause, or they used excessive violence, only if we have the resources to do that, which more than half of people in the U.S. do not.[60] 

    • Our criminal justice system is racially biased, and police systematically arrest people and seize property and information illegally based on racial profiling or bias.[61]

  • 5th Amendment - Unless in the military during war or genuine public danger, we can’t be held accountable for a serious crime unless a Grand Jury indicts us.  If we’re declared innocent of a criminal charge, that charge is forever dropped.  We can’t be forced to testify against ourselves.  Nobody can take our lives, freedoms or property without a full legal process.  Government can’t take our private property without compensating us for it fairly.

    • Our government kills U.S. citizens without Grand Jury indictment citing undeclared war powers.[62] 

    • Criminal cases can be retried if cases are overturned, because that’s not acquittal, 6 times,[63] and someone acquitted of a state law charge can then be tried for the same federal law charge.[64] [65]

    • We can be made to provide data, fingerprints and other biological information used against us.[66] 

    • Police often use intimidation and other tactics to get us to confess, testifying against ourselves.[67] 

    • In 95% of U.S. criminal cases, in a criminal justice system sentencing people at the world’s highest rates, defendants take plea bargain deals (because they cannot pay for bail or adequate defense?) and are punished without full legal processes.[68] [69] [70] 

    • Government seizes our stuff using “Civil Asset Forfeiture” rules without compensation.[71]  

  • 6th Amendment - Anybody accused of a crime has the right to know what those accusations are, have a speedy, legal, public trial by an unbiased jury, in fixed sites near the crime’s alleged location, be able to confront any witnesses and force other witnesses to testify, and have legal counsel.

    • In 2018, 2,500 people in Mississippi were jailed more than 90 days awaiting trial, 600 more than a year, some longer than they’d be jailed if convicted of their low-level crimes, long enough to lose jobs, homes and personal relationships, often because they couldn’t afford bail or defense.[72] 

    • People without resources, about half of people in the U.S., cannot afford paid legal counsel, and public defenders nationwide are overburdened and underfunded.  Public defenders in Missouri handle 80 to 100 cases a week, making it almost impossible to provide adequate defenses.[73] [74] 

  • 7th Amendment - In all common law disputes, we have the right to trials by jury, and after jury trials, no fact can be reviewed in a U.S. court under any pretense other than the rules of common law. 

    • Forced arbitration and class action waiver clauses in agreements eliminate rights to jury trials in civil matters, and ability to collaborate to be able to afford civil action big enough to get attention, against even gross violations, like when Wells Fargo Bank signed millions of us up for accounts without permission, or charged millions of us overdraft fees unfairly, which a rule later stopped in the financial sector, but which rules still allow in other sectors.[75]  That incents corporate abuse, because illegal practice business cases show small losses for scattered arbitration settlements from those who bother with them will be more than paid for by overall profits from the abuses, without risks of big court rulings stopping behaviors or big damage awards for class action suits.  That also keeps at least 60 million U.S. employees from joining to combat employer abuses, because they’re forced into arbitrations that are insignificant individually.[76] [77]

  • 8th Amendment - Governments can’t charge excessive bail or fines, or inflict cruel or unusual punishments. 

    • A bail or fine is excessive, based on personal circumstances.  Any given day, half a million people in the U.S. are in jail, because we can’t afford bail, which accounts for 99% of growth of technically innocent people in jail, 1999 to 2014.[78]  78% of people in the U.S. live paycheck to paycheck; and 70% are in debt;[79] and half don’t have $500 saved.[80]  Almost any fine is too much for many. 

    • Is denying reformed offenders the abilities to vote, work, or support a family cruel and unusual? 

    • Is a 16-year-old boy put in prison with adults, raped, sent to the same prison from the hospital after the rape, and then again being repeatedly raped cruel and unusual for starting a fire in a trash dumpster that caused less than $500 in damage?[81] 

    • How about a 12-year sentence for a $31 pot sale, a paralyzed man jailed for being carried in a car with a joint and a gun in it dying in jail without a ventilator, 20 years for growing pot for arthritis, or 15 years for smoking marijuana for relief for testicular cancer, and 5 years for his wife?[82] 

    • How about being held 43 years in solitary confinement?[83]

    • The U.S. Supreme Court recognizes Civil Asset Forfeitures in the U.S. violate this amendment.[84]

  • 9th Amendment - We have other rights and freedoms than just those called out in the Constitution.  If the Constitution doesn’t specifically take those from us, they are ours.

    • That includes rights articulated or determined by international law or standards later.

  • 10th Amendment - If the Constitution hasn’t given specific powers to the Federal Government or prohibited states from having them, those powers belong to the States, or to the people.

    • That includes rights articulated or determined by international law or standards later.

  • 13th Amendment - Slavery and involuntary service are illegal, except as punishment for criminal convictions.

    • There are still 46 million slaves in the world, 58,000 in the U.S.[85] 

      • Is it involuntary service to have to work many years to pay back $1.4 trillion in student loans (owed by 40 million people), or $1 trillion in credit card debt (at average interest APR of 15.6%)[86] because lenders have seduced a population never provided financial literacy education?

  • 14th Amendment – If we’re born or naturalized in the U.S., we’re citizens.  States can’t end our rights, privileges or immunities, or deprive us of life, freedoms or property without proper legal processes, or deny us equal protection of the laws, specifically for blacks after the Civil War. 

    • The U.S. criminal justice system is systematically racially biased, locking black citizens up at rates higher than South Africa did at the height of apartheid, at higher rates and for longer durations than whites, and with numerous examples of blacks being killed or harmed without due process via police violence.[87]  These abuses have led to a national Black Lives Matter movement, with numerous legitimate complaints and examples of abuse.[88]  The U.S. education system is systematically biased, giving more resources to predominantly white than non-white schools.[89]

    • Since adoption, the U.S. has frequently taken property, liberty, rights, lives and immunities from native Americans and Hawaiians, included in the scope of the 14th Amendment.[90]

  • 15th Amendment - U.S. or State governments can’t deny or abridge U.S. citizens’ rights to vote based on race, color or previous condition of servitude.  Congress can enforce this with laws.

    • The U.S.’ systematically racially biased criminal justice system takes away voting rights of non-whites at higher rates than whites, and of many people, based on servitude in that system.[91]

  • 24th Amendment - Citizens’ voting rights can’t be taken away or reduced for not paying a tax.

    • U.S. citizens can be banned from voting for tax evasion.[92]

 
 

Global Human Rights and Freedoms

 

The Constitution’s 2 whole 9th and 10th Amendments give us many other rights than just those named.  Just because they are not specifically called out in the Constitution does not mean we do not have them.  If the Constitution doesn’t give government the right to take them, they are our rights and freedoms.

We should therefore claim and use rights and freedoms determined or standardized by the international community, of which we are a part, if the U.S. Constitution doesn’t explicitly take those rights from us, especially if the U.S. signed international agreements naming them.  They’re our rights and freedoms.

United Nations International Bill of Rights

 

Human rights for all everywhere are defined by the U.N in its International Bill of Rights, composed of:

1.Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) [93]

 

Every human has global human rights and freedoms, drafted by Eleanor Roosevelt, in “humanity’s Magna Carta”, signed by the U.S. in 1948, the world’s most translated document, according to the Guinness Book of World Records.[94]  The U.S. role in producing this is a great source of global respect?  These rights are rightly enforceable by U.S. law under the 9th & 10th Amendments and International law.

  • Everybody has rights to freedom and equality.  We shall act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood, with reason and conscience!

    • U.S. intelligence agencies and military organize, conduct and support coups and violence that kill and harm innocent people all over the world, including 563 surprise drone bombings, operated remotely and impersonally, like in video games, that killed 807 civilians in the two Presidential terms preceding the current one. [95]  The current President refuses to report drone killings.[96]

    • In its vague War on Terror, the U.S. has already killed 1.3 - 2 million people,[97] citizens of other countries, in other countries, with or without permission of their governments, many, unintended victims, including innocent women and children.  It claims 1 civilian death per 157 air strikes?  Presidents no longer needs to ask anyone permission to harm others, creating since 9/11 an entirely separate, secret set of rules giving them the right to kill, imprison, torture, or spy on anyone, permanent war bureaucracy, invisible beyond the executive branch.[98]

    • That helps create the desperate anger, hatred and resentment to produce the few justified violent reactions needed to excuse the perhaps never-ending War on Terror, and its fear, which leads the public to surrender rights and freedoms to increased government powers?[99]

      1. Nobody receives torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

    • The U.S. tortures people, since 9-11, and it has now installed as the current head of the CIA someone who oversaw and destroyed evidence of it at a secret prison in Thailand.[100]

  • Everyone is equal before the law, and there is no discrimination or incitement of discrimination against equal protection of the law.

    • Is it equal for a rich, powerful, connected white man to get out 5 months early from 13 months in a county jail for luring scores of underage girls, as young as 13, into repeated sexual abuses by him and his powerful friends, with no charge for any accomplice, via a plea deal by a prosecutor who became the U.S. Labor Secretary;[101] versus a black father of 7 serving 13 years for 2 joints?[102]

    • Is it equal protection of the law for only 1 person to be prosecuted, receiving 30 months in jail, in widespread financial abuses that created the global Great Recession, harming billions of people[103] while 1,700 people a day are arrested for pot possession?[104]

    • Social media is used to discriminate in highly personal ways in advertisement and housing.[105]

  • Everyone has the right to effective remedy by competent national courts for acts violating our fundamental rights, granted by constitution or law.

    • Since 2002, the U.S. put 779 men in the Guantánamo Bay detention center and convicted seven, five in pre-trial agreements in which people plead guilty in return for the possibility of release.  Trials were conducted by military commission, and did not meet fair trial standards.  Only 1 victim of Guantánamo was transferred to the U.S. for trial in a civilian court.  Many were tortured.[106]

  • Nobody shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

    • U.S. interventions in other countries have enabled arbitrary abuses affecting millions.[107]

  • All have full equality to fair and public hearings by independent and impartial courts, in determining our rights and obligations, or for any criminal charge against us.

    • Under its Indefinite Detention policies, the U.S. can hold people without charges until death.[108]

  • All charged with a crime are presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial with all guarantees needed for defense; nobody is held guilty of any offense because of any act or omission which wasn’t an offense under national or international law, at the time it was committed; and nobody has a heavier penalty imposed than was applicable at the time of the offense.

    • In a practice called “extraordinary rendition,” the U.S. has kidnapped, tortured and held hundreds of people illegally in secret prisons and other facilities in other countries.[109] [110]

  • All have rights to know their privacy, family, home or correspondence will not be interfered with, and their honor or reputation won’t be attacked, arbitrarily, and have legal protections against that.

    • The U.S. is violating the privacy of innocent people all over the world by capturing our data and information and using it to persecute or manipulate those it will, creating fear of that in others.[111]

  • All have the right to free movement and residence within the borders of each country, to leave any country, including their own, and to return to their country.

    • The U.S. kidnapped a pregnant woman and her husband in Thailand, held them in a secret prison in Libya, and tortured him before releasing them as innocent.[112]

  • Everyone has the right to seek and enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution for political reasons or things consistent with the purposes and principles of the U.N.

    • 2017/18, U.S. policies and practices have included: (1) mass illegal rejections of asylum-seekers; (2) thousands of illegal family separations, deliberately inflicting suffering on families; and (3) increasingly arbitrary and indefinite asylum-seeker detention, all cruel, inhuman or degrading.[113]

  • Everyone has the right to a nationality, and nobody will be arbitrarily deprived of their nationality or denied the right to change nationalities.

    • The U.S. denies nationality to a U.S. born woman with a U.S. passport who joined and quit ISIS.[114]

  • Men and women of legal age, without limitation from race, nationality or religion, have rights to marry and found a family, and equal rights in, during and at dissolution of marriage.  Marriage will be entered into only with the free and full consent of the both spouses.  The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

    • The U.S. arrests immigrants married to U.S. citizens who seek to legalize their immigration status, so they can legally participate in society and healthy families, harming those families.[115]

  • Everyone has the right to own property, alone as well as in association with others, and nobody will be arbitrarily deprived of his or her property.

    • In “Civil Asset Forfeiture” government takes property, even if owners are not guilty of a crime.[116]  

  • Everyone has rights to freedoms of thought, conscience and religion, change religion or belief, and, alone or in community, in public or private, to practice his or her religion or belief.

    • Many in the U.S. believe it’s OK, valuable and spiritually important to have religious experiences with psychedelic plant medicines, which do not harm them, and provide important perspectives, insights and growth, if done well, but many are put in prison for it.[117]

  • Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, without interference, and to seek, get and share information and ideas via any media, without borders.

    • U.S. press and public can’t get information in millions of documents its government classifies.[118]

  • Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association, and nobody may be forced to belong to any association.

    • Hundreds have been arrested, including observing journalists, at peaceful Black Lives Matter protests of police violence and justice system racism.[119]  

  • Everyone has the right to take part in national government, directly, or through freely chosen representatives, and to equal access to public services in their country.  The will of the people is the basis of government authority; expressed in periodic and genuine elections, in which everyone has equal rights to participate and equivalent free voting procedures.

    • Millions of people in the U.S. are not allowed to vote because of criminal histories, more than enough to affect many election outcomes.[120]

    • Voter suppression is widespread in the U.S.[121] and includes:  restricting early voting, voter ID laws, purging voter rolls, gerrymandering, corruptible and not auditable electronic voting machines, suppressing native American voting, restricted poll numbers and hours, false information sharing, intimidation, and absentee and overseas voting restrictions.[122] [123]

  • All society members have rights to social security and, via international co-operation and national effort, according to a nation’s organization and resources, to economic, social and cultural rights needed for dignity and free development of our personality.

    • The U.S., the world’s richest country, is the world’s only developed country that does not provide universal healthcare coverage, which is now a de facto global human right.[124]  58 countries do.[125]

  • Everyone has the right to work, free choice of employment, just and favorable conditions of work, protection against unemployment, and equal pay for equal work, without any discrimination.  Everyone who works has rights to fair and favorable compensation ensuring for themselves and their families existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if needed, by other means of social protection.  Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions to protect their interests.

    • In the U.S., on average, women earn 80 cents for every dollar men earn;[126] in only 22 of 3,000 counties nationwide can workers earning legal minimum wage afford to rent a one-bedroom apartment;[127] and union membership has been driven down 50% since 1983 to 10.5%.[128]

    • Compensation is inadequate for at least 62% of families in U.S. metro areas,[129] part of huge problems with income and wealth inequity.[130]

  • Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

    • In the U.S. 86% of males and 67% of females work more than 40 hours per week.

    • 134 countries have laws setting the maximum length of the work week, but the U.S. does not.

    • The U.S. is the world’s only developed nation with no legally mandated annual leave.  All but Canada and Japan give at least 20 paid vacation days.  U.S. workers average 13 days/per year.   

    • In 1960, 20% of mothers worked. Now, 70% of U.S. children live in households where all adults do.

    • The U.S. is the only country in the Americas without a national paid parental leave benefit, which averages 12 weeks outside Europe and over 20 weeks in Europe.  It’s the only industrialized nation without a mandatory option for new parents to take parental leave.[131]

  • Everyone has rights to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of themselves and their families, including food, clothing, housing, medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in case of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond their control.  Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, born in or out of wedlock, will enjoy the same social protection.

    • Is the standard of living adequate for the 78% of the population living paycheck to paycheck in the world’s wealthiest nation?[132]

    • How about for the one million (3% of) U.S. K-12 students who were homeless, and 1 in 20 kids in California who were homeless, in the 2013-14 school year? [133]

    • How about for the 45,000 people a year in the U.S. who die from lack of healthcare,[134]  the 74 million without dental insurance,[135] the 25% of senior citizens who declare bankruptcy and 40% who mortgage or sell homes due to medical expenses,[136] the 1 in 5 adults with problems paying medical bills,[137] or 24 million (10% of) adults who carry medical debt from the previous year?[138] 

    • How about for U.S. families between 56 and 61 with median retirement savings of $17,000?[139]

    • How about taking children from parents legally seeking U.S. asylum and imprisoning them?[140]

  • All have rights to basic education, at no cost, that’s compulsory; professional/technical education is generally available; higher education is equally available to all on the basis of merit; education is directed to fully develop human personality, strengthen respect for human rights and freedoms, promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, religious or racial groups, and further U.N. efforts to maintain peace; and parents choose the kind of education their children get.

    • Is the U.S. really providing basic education for its 60% of students not proficient in math and 64% not proficient in reading at the 4th grade levels, or 67% of students not proficient in math and 66% not proficient in reading at the 8th grade levels?[141] 

    • In the U.S., access to higher education based on merit is not equitable when it is necessary for the vast majority of students to pay for higher education, with money and/or debt, and the top 10% of its population gets as much total income as the bottom 90%,[142] and have 75% of the wealth.[143]

    • Were you taught about these human rights in your U.S education?

  • Everyone has the right freely to participate in community cultural life, to enjoy the arts and share in scientific advancement and its benefits, and to protection of moral and material interests in any scientific, literary or artistic production they create.

    • Do all in the U.S. get to share in the benefits of the scientific advancement of pharmaceuticals developed to cure disease if 1 in 5 U.S. adults fail to complete a prescribed course of medicine because of cost, a hepatitis cure costs $84,000,[144] a drug company can arbitrarily raise the price per pill from $13.50 to $750 for one of the most common parasites in the world,[145] half of people in the U.S. have less than $500 in savings,[146] 8.4 million people do not have health care, and there is no national healthcare plan to make it possible to get that cure?

  • Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

    • The U.S. violates these rights and freedoms and damages the international social order by kidnapping, torturing and holding people in secret prisons without charges; [147] [148]  having active military, surveillance, intelligence and interference operations in most of the world’s countries,[149] including 90% of Africa’s 54 nations; [150] being by far the world’s largest arms dealer; [151] refusing to cooperate with U.N. investigators over potential human rights violations inside the U.S.;[152] and many other violations of international law and human rights, setting a bad example for others.

  • Each has duties to community, only in which free and full development of his personality is possible.  In the exercise of rights and freedoms, everyone is subject only to limitations determined by law solely for purposes of securing due recognition and respect for rights and freedoms of others, and for meeting just requirements of morality, public order and general welfare in a democratic society.  These rights and freedoms may not be used contrary to U.N. purposes and principles.

    • As long as we are not violating these human rights and freedoms, we all have a responsibility to ourselves and our communities to assert these rights and hold governments accountable to them, with respect to and for all human beings everywhere.

  • Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or do anything aimed at destroying any of these rights and freedoms.

    • Nobody has any right to do anything to take or limit any of these rights and freedoms.

So, government and society must not allow conditions that cause any of us to live in fear or need of, or be harmed by:  not being able to earn decent livings for ourselves and our families; homelessness; war; healthcare problems; inability to get education or training; being unfairly put in prison and punished; suffering if a setback in life creates financial need; grossly unfair distributions of income or wealth; systems too complicated to engage with fairly or efficiently; being discriminated against; harm from damage to our environments, ecosystems and other forms of life; inadequate free time; harm from nuclear, chemical or biological agents; not being able to defend or assert our rights and freedoms; inadequate social infrastructure to live according to current standards; having our privacy violated; or anything else caused by not being able to freely exercise our rights and freedoms.

Our rights and freedoms include at least all named in the agreements, conventions and declarations that precede or follow, and we have the right and responsibility to act and rebel established in the U.S. Declaration of Independence to make sure these rights and freedoms can be exercised appropriately.  Which of the following do you think our governments, businesses, systems or people are violating?

2.  International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)[l153] (1966)

  • Signed by the U.S. in 1977, ratified in 1992,[154] with 5 reservations, 5 understandings, 4 declarations and a proviso.[155] Everyone everywhere has them via the 9th and 10th Amendments and/or international law.Government can’t violate them.It reiterates or rephrases rights above and, among others, adds:

  • The inherent dignity and equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family are the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.  The ideal of free human beings enjoying civil and political freedom, and freedom from fear and want, can only be achieved if conditions are created in which all enjoy civil and political rights, as well as economic, social and cultural rights, realizing individuals have duties to other individuals and the communities to which we belong, and are responsible to strive for promotion and observance of these rights.

  • All peoples have the right of self-determination, to freely determine their political status and to freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.

  • All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources without international restrictions.  People cannot be deprived of their own means of subsistence.

  • States, including those with Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories, shall promote the realization of the right of self-determination, and respect that right.

  • States will respect and ensure to all in their territories and jurisdictions the rights in this agreement, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

  • States will adopt laws or measures needed to create these rights if they don’t already have them.

  • States will (a) ensure any person whose rights or freedoms are violated has an effective remedy, even if the violation is by somebody acting in official capacity; (b) ensure any person claiming such a remedy has such rights determined by competent judicial, administrative or legislative authorities; (c) ensure competent authorities enforce granted remedies.

  • State Parties ensure rights apply equally to men and women.

  • If public emergency threatens a nation’s existence, States may do things outside these obligations, only to the extent strictly required by the situation’s demands, if consistent with international laws, without discrimination on race, color, sex, language, religion or social origin, but they must inform other States via the U.N. Secretary-General right away what they’re not complying with and why, and when they return to compliance.

  • Each human has the right to life, protected by law, which nobody can be arbitrarily deprived of.

  • Death sentences may be imposed only for the most serious crimes, according to laws in force when crimes were committed, not contrary to this agreement or to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, only via a final judgement by a competent court.

  • Anyone sentenced to death has rights to seek pardon or commutation of the sentence, in all cases.  No death sentences for those below 18 years old or carried out on pregnant women. 

  • Nobody will be subjected without their free consent to medical or scientific experimentation.

  • No one is held in slavery or servitude; slavery and slave-trade in all forms is prohibited.

  • No one is required to perform forced or compulsory labor, except in countries where prison with hard labor is imposed as criminal punishment and that hard labor is part of a sentence to hard labor by a competent court, or it’s (i) work/service normally required under detention/conditional release from detention via legal court order, (ii) in military service or, in States with conscientious objection, national service legally required of conscientious objectors; (iii) service required in emergency threat to community life or well-being; or (iv) work or service which forms part of normal civil obligations.

  • Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person.  No one is subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention or will be deprived of liberty except on grounds and by procedures established by law.

  • Anyone arrested shall be informed, at time of arrest, of the reasons for the arrest and promptly informed of any charges.

  • Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge will be brought promptly before a judge or other legal officer to exercise judicial power and is entitled to trial within a reasonable time or be released.  It is not the general rule that people awaiting trial are detained in custody, but released subject to guarantees to appear for trial, other judicial proceedings stages, and execution of judgement.

  • Anyone deprived of liberty by arrest/detention is entitled to proceedings before a court, so the court can decide without delay the detention’s lawfulness and order release if it’s not lawful.

  • Anyone who’s been victim of unlawful arrest/detention has an enforceable right to compensation.

  • Anyone deprived of liberty is treated with humanity and respect for inherent human dignity.

  • Accused people will, except in exceptional circumstances, be segregated from convicted people and have separate treatment appropriate to their status as un-convicted people; and accused juveniles will be separated from adults and brought as speedily as possible for judicial review and decision.

  • The essential purpose of penitentiary systems is prisoner reformation and social rehabilitation.  Juvenile offenders are segregated from adults and treated appropriately for their age/legal status.

  • Nobody is imprisoned just because they can’t fulfil a contractual obligation.

  • Except in compelling cases of national security, foreigners lawfully in a State’s territory may be expelled from it only if the decision is reached according with law, foreigners have opportunities to present reasons against their expulsions, have their cases reviewed by the competent authorities for that purpose, and be represented in that process.

  • In any criminal charge, everyone is entitled to these minimum guarantees, in full equality:  to be informed promptly and in detail in a language we understand the nature and cause of the charge;  have enough time and facilities to ready our defense and communicate with counsel of our choice; be tried without undue delay; be tried in our presence, and defend ourselves in person or through legal assistance of our own choice; be informed, if we do not have legal assistance, of this right; have legal assistance assigned to us, in any case where interests of justice require it, without payment by us if we don’t have adequate means to pay for it; examine or have examined witnesses against us and to obtain attendance and examination of witnesses on our behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against us; have free assistance of an interpreter if we can’t understand or speak the language used in court; and not be forced to testify against ourselves or confess guilt.

  • In the case of juveniles, criminal procedures will take account of their age and the desirability of promoting their rehabilitation.

  • Everyone convicted of a crime shall have the right to have the conviction and sentence reviewed by a higher court according to law.

  • When we’ve been convicted of a crime, and that conviction is reversed or we’re pardoned because a new or newly discovered fact proves there was a mistake of justice, we’ll be compensated according to law, unless it’s proved that not disclosing the unknown fact in time was our fault.

  • Nobody is guilty of any crime because of any act or omission which was not a crime under law when committed.  No heavier penalty is imposed than that applicable at the time of the offense.  If, later, a lesser penalty is imposed for that, that new penalty applies to someone previously convicted of it.

  • Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

  • Nobody may arbitrarily or illegally interfere with anyone’s privacy, family, home or correspondence, or attack anyone’s honor and reputation, and everyone has rights to legal protection against that.

  • No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of their own choosing.

  • States will respect the liberty of parents and legal guardians to ensure the religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions.

  • Everyone has the right to hold opinions without interference.

  • Everyone has the right to freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of borders, orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or via any media of our choice.

  • Any propaganda for war shall be prohibited by law.

  • Any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law.

  • Everyone has the right form and join trade unions. 

  • The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

  • States take appropriate steps to ensure provision is made for the necessary protection of any children in marriage dissolution.

  • Each child has, without race, color, sex, language, religion, national or social origin, property or birth discrimination, rights to measures of protection required by status as a minor, on the part of the family, society and the State.

  • Every child shall be registered immediately after birth and have a name.

  • Every citizen has the right and opportunity to vote and be elected in real periodic elections, with universal, equal voting rights, by secret ballot, guaranteeing free expression of the will of the voters.

  • In States with ethnic, religious or linguistic minority people, no minority people is denied the rights, in community with other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, profess and practice their own religion, or use their own language.

3.  International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR),[156] (1966)

 

Signed by the U.S. in 1977, never ratified by the Senate.[157] We and all everywhere have these rights, under the 9th and 10th Amendments and/or international law.Governments cannot violate these rights.It reiterates or rephrases rights and freedoms above and, among others, adds:

  • Recognition that the ideal of free human beings enjoying freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created in which all may enjoy their economic, social and cultural rights, as well as their civil and political rights.

  • States recognize the right to work, in work freely chosen or accepted, and will take appropriate actions to provide technical and vocational guidance and training programs, policies and techniques to achieve steady economic, social and cultural development and full and productive employment, with conditions safeguarding fundamental individual political and economic freedoms.

  • States recognize everyone’s right to just and favorable work conditions which ensure provision of:

    • all workers adequate, fair and equal compensation for work of equal value, with no distinctions, and women conditions of work not inferior to those of men, with equal pay for equal work;

    • a decent living for themselves and their families;

    • safe and healthy working conditions;

    • equal opportunity for each person to be promoted in employment to appropriate higher levels, subject to no considerations other than those of seniority and competence;

    • rest, leisure and reasonable limitation of working hours, periodic holidays with pay, and compensation for public holidays

  • Everyone has the right to form trade unions and join any trade union of choice, which have the right to function freely, subject only to rules of that organization, to promote and protect economic and social interests, without restrictions other than those by law and necessary in democratic society for interests of national security, public order, or for protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

  • Trade unions have the right to establish national federations or confederations, and they have the right to form or join international trade-union organizations.

  • People have the right to strike, provided it’s exercised in conformity with the nation’s laws.

  • States recognize the right of everyone to social security, including social insurance.

  • States recognize special protection should be given to mothers for a reasonable period before and after childbirth, during which they receive paid leave or leave with adequate social security benefits.

  • States recognize special measures of protection and assistance should be taken on behalf of all children and young persons without any discrimination for reasons of parentage or other conditions. Children and young persons should be protected from economic and social exploitation.  Their employment in work harmful to their morals or health, dangerous to life, or likely to hamper their normal development should be punishable by law.  States should also set age limits below which the paid employment of child labor should be prohibited and punishable by law.

  • States recognize the right of all to adequate standards of living for themselves and their families, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and continuous improvement of living conditions. States will take appropriate steps to ensure realization of this right.

  • States recognize the fundamental right of all to be free from hunger, and will take, individually and through international co-operation, measures, including specific programs, needed to:

    • improve production, conservation and distribution of food methods, making full use of technical and scientific knowledge, spread nutrition principles knowledge, and develop or reform agrarian systems to attain the most efficient natural resources development and utilization;

    • taking into account problems of both food-importing and food-exporting countries, to ensure an equitable distribution of world food supplies in relation to need.

  • States recognize the right of everyone to enjoy the highest attainable standards of physical and mental health and will take steps to:

    • reduce the stillbirth of infant mortality rates and improve healthy child development;

    • improve all aspects of environmental and industrial hygiene;

    • prevent, treat and control epidemic, endemic, occupational and other diseases;

    • create conditions to assure to all medical service and medical attention in the event of sickness.

  • States recognize the right of all to education and will take steps so:

    • primary education is compulsory and available free to all;

    • secondary education in all forms, including technical and vocational education, is available and accessible to all, by all appropriate means, specifically, by progressively adding free education;

    • higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means, and in particular by the progressive introduction of free education;

    • fundamental education shall be encouraged or intensified, as far as possible, for those persons who have not received or completed the whole period of their primary education;

    • the development of a system of schools at all levels is actively pursued, and the material conditions of teaching staff are continuously improved;

    • parents and legal guardians are free to choose for their children schools other than those established by public authorities which conform to minimum State educational standards to ensure religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions.

  • States recognize the rights of all to take part in cultural life; enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications; benefit from the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which they are author; and will take steps necessary for the conservation, development and diffusion of science and culture, and respect the freedom indispensable for scientific research and creative activity.

  • States recognize the benefits to be derived from encouragement and development of international contacts and co-operation in scientific and cultural fields.

 
 
 

Other United Nations International Human Rights and Freedoms

 

Those are the International Bill of Rights.  Other international agreements also describe our inalienable human rights and freedoms, provided under the 9th and 10th Amendments and international law.

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide[158]
  • Signed by the U.S. in 1948 and ratified in 1988,[159] protects all people from genocide.

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination[160]
  • Signed by the U.S. in 1966 and ratified in 1994,[161] protects all against all racial discrimination.

Convention on Non-applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes & Crimes Against Humanity[162]
  • The U.S. never ratified it,[163] but 55 nations have so far.

  • There’s no time limit for prosecuting war crimes or crimes against humanity.

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment[164]
  • Signed by the U.S. in 1988 and ratified in 1994, and 165 nations agree to these protections [165]

Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (ICEDAW)[166]
  • Signed by the U.S. in 1980 but never ratified, and 165 nations agree to these protections.[167]

  • Women have all of the rights men do, including rights to equality in everything.

Convention on the Rights of the Child[168]
  • Signed by the U.S. in 1995, but not ratified, though 196 other nations agree.[169]

  • Every child, without discrimination by ethnicity, gender, religion, language, abilities or any other status, whatever they think or say, whatever their family background, has:

    • The rights to life and to an identity.

    • The right to express their views, feelings and wishes in all matters affecting them, and to have their views considered and taken seriously, at all times, like during immigration proceedings, housing decisions, or about the child’s day-to-day home life.

    • The freedom to express their thoughts and opinions and to access all kinds of information, as long as it is within the law.

    • The right to think and believe what they choose, and also to practice their religion, as long as they are not stopping other people from enjoying their rights.

    • The right to meet with other children and to join groups and organizations, as long as this does not stop other people from enjoying their rights.

    • The right to privacy and to law protecting the child's private, family and home life, including protecting children from unlawful attacks that harm their reputation.

    • The right to reliable information from a variety of sources.

    • The right to live a full and decent life with dignity and, as far as possible, independence, and to play an active part in the community, if they have a disability.

    • The right to the best possible health.

    • The right to regular review of their treatment, the way they are cared for, and their wider circumstances if they have been placed away from home for care or protection (e.g., with a foster family or in a hospital).

    • The right to benefit from social security.

    • The right to a standard of living good enough to meet their physical and social needs and support their development, and to government help if families can’t afford to provide this.

    • The right to education:  free primary education and different forms of secondary education available to every child.  Discipline in schools must respect children’s dignity and their rights. Richer countries must help poorer countries achieve this.

    • The right to legal assistance and a fair trial with dignity and respect that takes account of their age if accused or guilty of breaking the law.

    • The right to learn and use the language, customs and religion of their family, whether or not these are shared by the majority of the people in the country where they live.

    • The right to relax, play and take part in a wide range of cultural and artistic activities.

    • The right to visit and keep in contact with both parents if living apart in different countries.

  • Governments must:

    • Give top priority to best interests of children in all decisions and actions that affect children

    • Do all they can to make sure every child can enjoy their rights by creating systems and passing laws that promote and protect children’s rights.

    • Respect the rights and responsibilities of parents and caregivers to provide guidance and direction to their children as they grow up, so they fully enjoy their rights in a way that recognizes children’s increasing capacity to make their own choices.

    • Do all they can to ensure that children survive and develop to their full potential.

    • Respect and protect a child’s right to an identity, and prevent the child’s name, nationality or family relationships from being changed unlawfully.

    • Not separate children from their parents against their will unless it’s in their best interests (e.g., a parent is hurting or neglecting a child).  Children whose parents have separated have the right to stay in contact with both parents, unless this could cause them harm.

    • Respond quickly and sympathetically if a child or its parents apply to live together in the same country, and allow children whose parents live apart in different countries to visit and keep in contact with both of them.

    • Do everything they can to prevent children from being taken out of their own country illegally by their parents or other relatives, or being prevented from returning home.

    • Respect the rights and responsibilities of parents to guide their children as they grow up.

    • Help protect children from information materials that could harm them.

    • Support parents by creating support services for children and giving parents help they need to raise their children.

    • Do all they can to ensure children are protected from all forms of violence, abuse, neglect and bad treatment, by their parents or anyone else who looks after them.

    • Give children special protection and assistance if they cannot be looked after by their immediate family, including making sure they are provided with alternative care that is continuous and respects their culture, language and religion.

    • Oversee the adoption process to make sure it’s safe, lawful and prioritizes children’s best interests, only allowing adoption outside their country if they can’t be placed in country.

    • Provide children with appropriate protection and assistance to help them enjoy all these rights if a child is seeking refuge or has refugee status, and help refugee children who are separated from their parents to be reunited with them.

    • Do all they can to support disabled children and their families.

    • Provide good quality health care, clean water, nutritious food, a clean environment, and education on health and well-being, so children can stay healthy, and richer countries must help poorer countries achieve this.

    • Provide social security, including financial support and other benefits, to families in need.

    • Help families who cannot afford to provide a standard of living good enough to meet their physical and social needs and support their development.  

    • Encourage the child’s respect for human rights, as well as respect for their parents, their own culture and other cultures, and the environment, in education that must develop every child’s personality, talents and abilities to the fullest extent.

    • Protect children from economic exploitation and work that is dangerous or might harm their health, development or education, set a minimum age for children to work, and ensure that work conditions are safe and appropriate.

    • Protect children from illegal use of drugs and from being involved in production or distribution of drugs.

    • Protect children from all forms of sexual abuse and exploitation.

    • Protect children from being abducted, sold or moved illegally to a different place, inside or outside their country, for the purpose of exploitation.

    • Not torture, sentence to death, or allow cruel or degrading treatment or punishment of children.  Children should not be arrested, detained or imprisoned, except as a last resort, and for the shortest time possible.  They must be treated with respect and care, and be able to keep in contact with their family.  Children must not be put in prison with adults.

    • Protect children from all other forms of exploitation, for example the exploitation of children for political activities, by the media, or for medical research.

    • Not allow children under the age of 15 to take part in war or join the armed forces, and do everything they can to protect and care for children affected by war and armed conflicts.

    • Provide children who’ve experienced neglect, abuse, exploitation, torture or who are victims of war special support to help them recover their health, dignity, self-respect and social life.

    • Treat children accused or guilty of breaking the law with dignity and respect.  They have the right to legal assistance and a fair trial that takes account of their age.  Set a minimum age for children to be tried in a criminal court, and manage a justice system that enables children who have been in conflict with the law to reintegrate into society.

    • Keep any laws that go further than these.

    • Actively work to make sure children and adults know of these rights, freedoms and rules.

  • Governments should:

    • Encourage the media to provide information that children can understand.

  • Parents should:  always consider what is best for the child, and share between both parents’ responsibilities for bringing up their child.

Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees[170]
  • Ratified by the U.S. in 1968, along with 147 other countries[171]

  • People, spouses and children have rights to safe asylum and refuge if they are forced to or feel a need to flee their countries because of war, violence, political or human rights persecution.

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)[172]
  • Signed by the U.S. in 2009 but never ratified; 158 other countries have ratified it[173]

  • Forbids all discrimination against persons with disabilities, guarantees right to an independent and self-determined life, equal rights to a family, the right of employment.  Assures rights to an adequate living standard and social protection, equal access to education, equal participation rights in societal and cultural life, as well as protection from violence, exploitation and abuse.

International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (ICRMW)[174]
  • Never ratified by the U.S., but was ratified by 67 other countries[175]

  • With 93 clauses defining and describing migrant workers and their rights, it is the longest U.N. human rights convention altogether.  Migrant workers have human rights and freedoms also.

International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance[176]
  • Never ratified by the U.S.; 108 other countries have ratified it[177]

  • People have the right to protection from enforced disappearance, arrest, detention, abduction, or any other form of deprivation of liberty by agents of the State, or by persons or groups of persons acting with the authorization, support or consent of the State, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the deprivation of liberty, or by concealment of the fate or whereabouts of the disappeared person, which place such a person outside the protection of the law.

  • Families have the right to know the truth about circumstances and fate of a disappeared person.

  • States must:

    • Enact specific laws establishing the crime of enforced disappearance; investigate complaints and reports of enforced disappearance and bring those responsible to justice; detain people only in officially approved and monitored institutions in which all prisoners are registered.

    • Establish the absolute right to Habeas corpus (a legal action, through which a prisoner can be released from unlawful detention, or detention lacking sufficient cause or evidence);

    • Make illegal the concealment of the whereabouts of arrested persons which are in this way placed outside the protection of the law, and

    • Make it illegal to abduct children whose parents were victims of enforced disappearance, and to fake these children’s identities and adoption.

Geneva Conventions of War[178]

 

Essentially universally adopted on Earth, these provide human rights guarantees in war, including:

  • 64 articles protecting the wounded and sick, medical and religious personnel, medical units and medical transports, and medical service people using the red cross symbol during war

  • 64 articles protecting the wounded and sick, medical and religious personnel, medical units, medical transports, medical ships at sea and those using the red cross symbol during war

  • 143 articles protecting captured combatants in war, and their labor, financial resources, relief, judicial proceedings against them and repatriation after active hostilities cease

  • 159 articles protecting status and treatment of civilian populations against certain consequences of war, with specific rules for the treatment of civilian internees, and hospital and safety zones

  • 91 articles applying the Geneva Conventions to situations of non-international armed conflicts, including civil wars, internal armed conflicts that spill into other States, or internal conflicts in which other States or multinational forces intervene; requiring humane treatment for all people in enemy hands, without any adverse distinction; prohibiting murder, mutilation, torture, cruel, humiliating and degrading treatment, taking hostages and unfair trial; requiring the wounded, sick and shipwrecked be collected and cared for; and granting safety to red cross services.

International Arms Agreements

 

People have protections against the sale and use of many kinds of arms, including:

  • Antipersonnel Mines[179]

  • Ballistic Missile Proliferation[180] [181] [182]

  • Biological Weapons[183]

  • Chemical Weapons[184]

  • Cluster Munitions[185]

  • Irresponsible Trade of Conventional Arms[186]

  • Nuclear Explosive Testing[187] [188] [189] [190]

  • Nuclear Weapons Use and Proliferation[191] [192] [193] [194] [195] [196] [197] [198] [199] [200] [201] [202] [203]

  • Verifying Military Information via Aerial Observation and Imaging[204]

  • Weapons of Mass Destruction in Space[205]

Need for Change in Relation to Human Rights and Freedoms

 

Establishing and protecting universal human rights and freedoms with laws, and providing a structure for government to do so, is the purpose of the U.S. Constitution, and that is the highest law in the U.S.  Nothing is superior to that with regard to our government, any of its actions or laws.  Period. 

Regardless of the words used, any of their faults or limitations, or how they can be manipulated or read, conceptually, that is what the U.S. was created to be and do.  That concept is who and what we are as a nation and a people, and we have championed that globally, inspiring many others all over the world.  That’s our main source of legitimacy, pride, honor, identity, integrity, respect, decency and appreciation, as a nation and as a people, for and by human beings everywhere.  Feel the energy and power of that! 

Did you feel the energy and power of how it felt to recognize and acknowledge violations of that above?  That didn’t feel good, did it?  Why not?  What values or beliefs were violated?  What’s going on in there?

The point of various verbal expressions of these universal human rights and freedoms is not to get all lawyered up and interpret them in attempts to confine and limit them, but to recognize and support their great pervasiveness and expansiveness.  We have the right to be free to be and do as we want to, as long as that does not infringe on others’ rights and freedoms, or cause significant harm to others, directly, or indirectly by causing harms to life forms that affect us, or environments that affect us. 

Many of us are not aware of these rights and freedoms, or of this higher-level concept.  We need to be.  We need to share and teach all of this to everyone, everywhere.  We need to insist that governments, businesses, organizations and humans everywhere understand the spirit and intentions of all of this, and adhere to all of this.  We need to exercise our right to rebellion in order to make it so!

 

Direct and indirect violations of these universal human rights and freedoms are all around us.  Some are conducted by government, some by businesses, some by other organizations, and some by people.  Many are revealed in these wicked problems chapters.  These rights and freedoms are greater than any of us individually.  Insisting on adherence to these rights, universally, is among the most powerful things any of us can do to improve the qualities and circumstances of our own lives, and of our loved ones’.  The U.S. withdrew from the U.N. Human Rights Council after it called out the U.S. poverty problem.[206]

Stand up, get out there and fight for universal human rights and freedoms!  Do whatever we can!  Educate others about our human rights and advocate for comprehensive human rights education!  Support local and international efforts to create, disseminate and enforce human rights!  Change!

Write letters to representatives, news agencies and others, even if it seems that it will not matter!  Support human rights organizations and information!  Support refugees fleeing human rights violations!  Stand up for your own human rights, even when intimidated by police or government!  Don’t be bullied!

 

Publish and share human rights with others, in public and private!  Find ways to live free with integrity!  Be aware and take care that none of your own actions and behaviors violate the rights of any other!  Take advantage of human rights to live the best life you possibly can!  Be free, and let others be free!

 

Insist on international enforcement of human rights, including actions to stop the U.S. government!  Refuse coercion and plea agreements in the justice system, and insist on full and fair legal process!  Argue from the perspective of global human rights in advocacy to address our many wicked problems! Isn’t it arrogant and insensitive to think other forms of life don’t have fundamental rights and freedoms?

 
 
 

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Endnotes

 

[1] “Trade Wars and How They Affect You”, Why Trade Wars Are Bad and Nobody Wins”, Kimberly Amadeo, The Balance, Updated February 7, 2019, https://www.thebalance.com/trade-wars-definition-how-it-affects-you-4159973

[2] “In Blow to Trump, America’s Trade Deficit in Goods Hits Record $891 Billion”, Jim Tankersley and Ana Swanson”, The New York Times, March 6, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/06/us/politics/us-trade-deficit.html

[3] “Tariffs could cost American households $2,400 each in 2019, a new study warns: Tariffs stemming from President Trump's trade conflicts could cost Americans $915 each, or $2,400 per household, in the form of higher prices, lower wages and lower investment returns in 2019, according to a new study. If the tariffs stay in place, the study says, the losses would add up to $17,300 per household by 2030.”, Stephanie Dhue, CNBC, Updated November 29, 2018, https://www.cnbc.com/2018/11/26/tariffs-could-cost-american-households-2400-each-in-2019-study.html

[4] “Trump’s Trade War Cost U.S. More Than $3 Billion A Month, Economists Say:  Overall ... we find that the full incidence of the tariff falls on domestic consumers,” report says.”, Mary Papenfuss, March 5, 2019, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/trump_n_5c7e0a6ee4b069b2129f1844?ncid=APPLENEWS00001

[5] See the chapter on Economy, Banking and Finance, and “Value of the Dollar Today: Why the Dollar Is Worth So Much Less Than It Used to Be”, Kimberly Amadeo, The Balance, Updated January 30, 2019, https://www.thebalance.com/what-is-the-value-of-a-dollar-today-3306105

[6] See the chapter on Empire and Its Agents

[7] See the chapter on Empire and Its Agents

[8] “A Guide to Emergency Powers and Their Use”, Brennan Center for Justice, December 5, 2018, https://www.brennancenter.org/analysis/emergency-powers

[9] “More than 80% of Americans Want Undocumented Immigrants to Have the ‘Chance to Become U.S. Citizens’”, Chantal Da Silva, Newsweek, February 4, 2019, https://www.newsweek.com/more-80-americans-want-undocumented-immigrants-have-chance-become-us-citizens-1316889

[10] “ICE arrests 232 people in four-day raid of California's Bay Area”, Nicole Darrah, Fox News, March 4, 2018, https://www.foxnews.com/politics/ice-arrests-232-people-in-four-day-raid-of-californias-bay-area

[11] “The Trump Administration Is Keeping a U.S. Citizen Secretly Locked Up Without Charges”, Jonathan Hafetz, ACLU Center for Democracy, November 3, 2017, https://www.aclu.org/blog/national-security/detention/trump-administration-keeping-us-citizen-secretly-locked-without

[12] “Rule 3.140”, Florida Rules of Criminal Procedure, May 10, 2018, https://www-media.floridabar.org/uploads/2018/05/Criminal-Procedure-Rules-05-10-18.pdf

[13] “Innocence Is Irrelevant:  This is the age of the plea bargain—and millions of Americans are suffering the consequences.”, Emily Yoffe, The Atlantic, September 2017, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/09/innocence-is-irrelevant/534171/

[14] “Coercive Plea Bargaining:  The Unrecognized Scourge of the Justice System”, H. Mitchell Caldwell, Catholic University Law Review, Volume 61, Issue 1, Fall 2011, https://scholarship.law.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&context=lawreview

[15] “Justice denied: The human toll of America's public defender crisis”, Oliver Laughland, The Guardian, September 7, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/sep/07/public-defender-us-criminal-justice-system

[16] “Sex Offender Registration and Notification in the United States:  Current Case Law and Issues, U.S. Department of Justice, March 2018, https://www.smart.gov/caselaw/Case-Law-Update-2018-Compiled.pdf

[17] “Asset Forfeiture Reform”, Drug Policy Alliance, Accessed February 18, 2019, http://www.drugpolicy.org/issues/asset-forfeiture-reform

[18] See the chapter on Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco Problems

[19] See the chapter on Empire and Its Agents

[20] “Here Are the Ways Trump Cashes In on Being President”, Eric Schaal, Money and Career Cheatsheet, January 14, 2019, https://www.cheatsheet.com/money-career/all-the-ways-trump-cashes-in-on-the-u-s-presidency.html/

[21] Letter from James Madison to George Hay, 23 August 1823, https://web.archive.org/web/20170525182347/https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/99-02-02-0023

[22] “A Quest to Make Every Vote Count:  Lawrence Lessig says the current electoral system is unconstitutional – and he’s suing to change it.”, Joseph P. Williams, U.S. News and World Report, February 28, 2018, https://www.usnews.com/news/the-report/articles/2018-02-28/is-the-electoral-system-unconstitutional

[23] “Executive Agreements: International Lawmaking Without Accountability?”, Curtis Bradley, Jack Goldsmith, Oona Hathaway, Lawfare, January 9, 2019, https://www.lawfareblog.com/executive-agreements-international-lawmaking-without-accountability

[24] See the chapter on Government Corruption

[25] See the chapter on Empire and Its Agents

[xxvi] “Interview: When the US Government Hides Evidence:  US Government Can Construct Stories to Hide Illegal Searches”, Sarah St.Vincent, Amy Braunschweiger, Human Rights Watch, 2 9, 20618, https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/01/09/interview-when-us-government-hides-evidence

[27] “From Criminal Convictions to Ethical Lapses: The Range of Misconduct in Trump’s Orbit”, Larry Buchanan, Karen Yourish, The New York Times, September 1, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/09/01/us/politics/trump-officials-crimes-and-ethical-violations.html

[2] 8“Trump isn’t just violating norms — he’s also breaking the law”, Max Boot, The Washington Post, April 25, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2019/04/25/trump-isnt-just-violating-norms-hes-also-breaking-law/?utm_term=.95b7c9d03b8b

[29] “Native Perspectives on the 40th Anniversary of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act”, Dennis Zotigh, The Smithsonian, November 30, 2018, https://www.smithsonianmag.com/blogs/national-museum-american-indian/2018/11/30/native-perspectives-american-indian-religious-freedom-act/

[30] “The Establishment Clause And Public Schools”, ACLU, Accessed February 28, 2019, https://www.aclu.org/other/establishment-clause-and-schools-legal-bulletin

[3]1 “‘In God We Trust’ becomes nation’s motto, July 30, 1956”, Andrew Glass, Politico, July 30, 2018, https://www.politico.com/story/2018/07/30/in-god-we-trust-becomes-nations-motto-july-30-1956-741016

[32] “The Faulty Logic in Trump’s Travel Ban:  The president’s stated purpose was to keep terrorists out, but his plan has all kinds of problems”, Hanah Giorgis, The Atlantic, January 13, 2019, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2019/01/trumps-travel-ban-logic-flaw/579631/

[33] “Whistleblower Protections in USA Liberty Act Not Enough”, David Ruiz, Electronic Frontier Foundation, October 17, 2017, https://www.eff.org/es/deeplinks/2017/10/whistleblower-protections-usa-liberty-act-not-enough

[34] See the chapter on The Surveillance State

[3]5 “Since the NFL anthem protests, white fans like the white players more — and the black ones less”, Bethany Lacina, The Washington Post, January 19, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2019/01/19/happy-nfl-playoffs-since-the-anthem-protests-white-football-fans-like-white-players-more-and-black-ones-less/?utm_term=.cb6d699fb9d3

[36] “Police slams & arrest Teen girls for recording Harnett County, NC Police Brutality”, Gearsonomics, YouTube, Published on Dec 12, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AWUF-q-LaLI

[37] “Anti-BDS Legislation in Senate Disregards Free Speech”, National Coalition Against Censorship, January 11, 2019, https://ncac.org/news/blog/anti-bds-legislation-in-senate-disregards-free-speech

[38] “History of Television Censorship”, Tom Head, ThoughtCo, Updated February 13, 2019, https://www.thoughtco.com/history-of-television-censorship-721229

[39] “Your Free Speech Rights (Mostly) Don't Apply At Work”, Tom Spiggle, ACLU, September 28, 2018, https://www.aclu.org/other/surveillance-under-usapatriot-act

[40] U.S. Press Freedom Tracker, https://pressfreedomtracker.us/

[41] “The Government Is Classifying Too Many Documents: That overuse has wide-reaching consequences for our government—and for us as citizens”, Elizabeth Goitein, The Nation, July 7, 2016, https://www.thenation.com/article/the-government-is-classifying-too-many-documents/

[42] “2018 has been a dangerous and deadly year for journalists”, Emily Rauhala, The Washington Post, December 4, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2018/12/04/was-dangerous-deadly-year-journalists/?utm_term=.dfd028ea8df3

[43] “In a violent year for journalists, United States among the deadliest countries for first time”, Eliott C. McLaughlin, CNN, Updated December 19, 2018, https://edition.cnn.com/2018/12/19/us/us-deadliest-countries-journalists-reporters-without-borders/index.html

[44] “The Demise of the White House: Press Briefing Under Trump, Karen Yourish, Jasmine C. Lee, The New York Times, January 28, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/01/22/us/politics/white-house-press-briefing.html

[45] “These 6 Corporations Control 90% Of The Media In America”, Ashley Lutz, Business Insider, June 14, 2012, https://www.businessinsider.com/these-6-corporations-control-90-of-the-media-in-america-2012-6

[46] “Sinclair Made Dozens of Local News Anchors Recite the Same Script”, Jacey Fortin and Jonah Engel Bromwich, The New York Times, April 2, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/02/business/media/sinclair-news-anchors-script.html

[47] “5 facts about the state of the news media in 2017, Michael Barthel, Pew Research, August 21, 2018, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/08/21/5-facts-about-the-state-of-the-news-media-in-2017/

[48] “Is it Fact or Opinion? Better Ask a Young Adult: No matter the political appeal of a statement, younger adults are more apt at distinguishing between a fact and an opinion.”, Claire Hansen, U.S. News and World Report, October 23, 2018, https://www.usnews.com/news/national-news/articles/2018-10-23/younger-americans-better-at-telling-fact-from-opinion

[49] “The year in press freedom: Attacks, arrests, and more”, Camille Fassett, Columbia Journalism Review, December 19, 2018, https://www.cjr.org/analysis/us-press-freedom-tracker-2018.php

[50] “Influence of fake news in Twitter during the 2016 US presidential election”, Alexandre Bovet & Hernán A. Makse, Nature Communications, volume 10, Article number: 7 (2019), https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-07761-2

[51] “Trump may owe his 2016 victory to ‘fake news,’ new study suggests”, Richard Gunther, Erik C. Nisbet, Paul Beck, The Conversation, February 15, 2018, https://theconversation.com/trump-may-owe-his-2016-victory-to-fake-news-new-study-suggests-91538

[52] “'The Facebook Dilemma' review: 'Frontline' doc examines the dark side of sharing”, Michael Phillips, Chicago Tribune, October 26, 2018, https://www.chicagotribune.com/entertainment/tv/ct-ent-facebook-dilemma-frontline-rev-1029-story.html

[53] “2018 World Press Freedom Index”, Reporters Without Borders for Freedom of Information, https://rsf.org/en/ranking

[54] “The Surveillance State Descends on the Dakota Access Pipeline Spirit Camp”, Sabrina King, ACLU, October 10, 2016, https://www.aclu.org/blog/free-speech/rights-protesters/surveillance-state-descends-dakota-access-pipeline-spirit-camp

[55] “A Tale of Two (Occupied) Cities:  Policing Strategies at Occupy Wall Street and Occupy Philadelphia”, Traci Yoder, University of Pennsylvania Law School, Legal Scholarship Repository, October 1, 2011, https://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1133&context=jlasc

[56] “About 575 People Arrested Protesting Trump’s Immigration Policy”, The Associated Press, Updated on June 28, 2018, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-06-28/the-latest-protesters-told-to-remove-detention-center-tents

[57] “In the Freezer: Abusive Conditions for Women and Children in US Immigration Holding Cells”, Human Rights Watch, February 28, 2018, https://www.hrw.org/report/2018/02/28/freezer/abusive-conditions-women-and-children-us-immigration-holding-cells

[58] “These are the four largest protests since Trump was inaugurated”, Jenna Arnold, Kanisha Bond, Erica Chenoweth and Jeremy Pressman, The Washington Post, May 31, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2018/05/31/these-are-the-four-largest-protests-since-trump-was-inaugurated/?utm_term=.16fc63764cd1

[59] See the chapter on The Surveillance State

[60] See chapter on Income and Wealth Inequality and “Police Misconduct and Civil Rights”, Findlaw, Accessed February 18, 2019, https://civilrights.findlaw.com/civil-rights-overview/police-misconduct-and-civil-rights.html

[61] “There’s overwhelming evidence that the criminal-justice system is racist. Here’s the proof.”, Radley Balko, The Washington Post, September 18, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/opinions/wp/2018/09/18/theres-overwhelming-evidence-that-the-criminal-justice-system-is-racist-heres-the-proof/?utm_term=.90e6f2157801

[62] “US cited controversial law in decision to kill American citizen by drone”, Court documents reveal Obama administration cited law blessing global war against al-Qaida in killing of Anwar al-Awlaki”, Spencer Ackerman, The Guardian, June 23 2014, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jun/23/us-justification-drone-killing-american-citizen-awlaki

[63] “Double Jeopardy in the United States: The Startling Reality”, David J. Kramer, August 18, 2018, https://www.novilaw.com/2018/08/double-jeopardy/

[64] “U.S. Supreme Court Appears Wary of Expanding 'Double Jeopardy'”, Lawrence Hurley, U.S. News and World Report, December 6, 2018, https://www.usnews.com/news/us/articles/2018-12-06/supreme-court-weighs-double-jeopardy-dispute

[65] “Judge Andrew Napolitano: Can government punish twice for the same crime?”, Judge Andrew P. Napolitano, Fox News, June 19, 2019, https://www.foxnews.com/opinion/judge-andrew-napolitano-can-government-punish-twice-for-the-same-crime

[66] “Why the Constitution Can Protect Passwords But Not Fingerprint Scans”, Jack Linshi, Time, November 6, 2014, http://time.com/3558936/fingerprint-password-fifth-amendment/

[67] “Tactics Police Use to Get a Confession: Learn about the various techniques used by police officers to get a confession.”, Ave Mince-Didier, Criminal Defense Lawyer, https://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/resources/criminal-defense/defendants-rights/tactics-police-use-get-a-confession

[68] “Innocence Is Irrelevant:  This is the age of the plea bargain—and millions of Americans are suffering the consequences.”, Emily Yoffe, The Atlantic, September 2017, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/09/innocence-is-irrelevant/534171/

[69] “Coercive Plea Bargaining:  The Unrecognized Scourge of the Justice System”, H. Mitchell Caldwell, Catholic University Law Review, Volume 61, Issue 1, Fall 2011, https://scholarship.law.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&context=lawreview

[70] “Justice denied: The human toll of America's public defender crisis”, Oliver Laughland, The Guardian, September 7, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/sep/07/public-defender-us-criminal-justice-system

[71] “Asset Forfeiture Reform”, Drug Policy Alliance, Accessed February 18, 2019, http://www.drugpolicy.org/issues/asset-forfeiture-reform

[72] “Mississippi Defendants Spend Months in Jail Awaiting Trial: Poverty, scarce resources, and a pattern of locking up people for low-level crimes all lead to very long jail stays for many defendants awaiting trial in Mississippi.”, Jeff Amy, U.S. News & World Report, April 24, 2018, https://www.usnews.com/news/best-states/mississippi/articles/2018-04-24/stuck-in-jail-poor-mississippi-inmates-wait-long-for-trial

[73] “Public defenders nationwide say they're overworked and underfunded”, Phil McCausland, NBC, December 11, 2017, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/public-defenders-nationwide-say-they-re-overworked-underfunded-n828111

[74] “Justice denied: The human toll of America's public defender crisis”, Oliver Laughland, The Guardian, September 7, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/sep/07/public-defender-us-criminal-justice-system

[75] “Treasury Faults Arbitration Rule Aimed at Protecting Consumers”, Jessica Silver-Greenberg, The New York Times, October 23, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/23/business/treasury-faults-arbitration-rule-aimed-at-protecting-consumers.html

[76] “What The Supreme Court's Decision On Forced Arbitration Means For You”, L.V. Anderson, Digg, May 21, 2018, http://digg.com/2018/forced-arbitration-employment-supreme-court-decision

[77] “The growing use of mandatory arbitration: Access to the courts is now barred for more than 60 million American workers”, Alexander J.S. Colvin, Economic Policy Institute, April 6, 2018, https://www.epi.org/publication/the-growing-use-of-mandatory-arbitration-access-to-the-courts-is-now-barred-for-more-than-60-million-american-workers/

[78] “Bail reform, which could save millions of unconvicted people from jail, explained: Hundreds of thousands of legally innocent people languish in jails on any given day simply because they can’t afford bail.”, Stephanie Wykstra, Vox, October 17, 2018, https://www.vox.com/future-perfect/2018/10/17/17955306/bail-reform-criminal-justice-inequality

[79] “The government shutdown spotlights a bigger issue: 78% of US workers live paycheck to paycheck”, Emmie Martin, CNBC, January 9, 2019, https://www.cnbc.com/2019/01/09/shutdown-highlights-that-4-in-5-us-workers-live-paycheck-to-paycheck.html

[80] “Compare your finances to financial statistics for the average American household to see how you stack up”, Debt.com Education Center:  Personal Finance Statistics, https://www.debt.com/edu/personal-finance-statistics/

[81] “Cruel and Unusual Punishment: Confining Juveniles with Adults After Graham and Miller

Andrea Wood, Emory Law Journal, Volume 61, Issue 6, Accessed February 18, 2019, http://law.emory.edu/elj/content/volume-61/issue-6/comments/cruel-and-unusual-punishment.html#section-0b79795d3efc95b9976c7c5b933afce2

[82] “Ten worst sentences for marijuana-related crimes: Punishments of this sort seldom fit the offense, but these cases are especially egregious”, Kristen Gwynne, October 29, 2012, https://www.salon.com/2012/10/29/ten_worst_sentences_for_marijuana_related_crimes/

[83] “Albert Woodfox released from jail after 43 years in solitary confinement: US’s longest-standing solitary confinement prisoner set free in Louisiana after more than four decades in form of captivity widely denounced as torture”, Ed Pilkington, The Guardian, February 19, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/feb/19/albert-woodfox-released-louisiana-jail-43-years-solitary-confinement

[84] “The Supreme Court Resuscitates the Eighth Amendment: The justices strike a blow against policing for profit.”, Scott Bullock, Nick Sibilla, The Atlantic, March 13, 2019, https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/03/unanimous-supreme-court-decision-policing-profit/584506/

[85] “There Are 46 Million Slaves in the World — Here's Where They're Found: A chilling reminder from the Global Slavery Index”, Corey Plante, Inverse, May 12, 2017, https://www.inverse.com/article/31386-countries-with-the-most-slaves

[86] “Total Household Debt Increases, Driven by Mortgage, Auto and Credit Card Debt”, August 15, 2017, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, https://www.newyorkfed.org/newsevents/news/research/2017/rp170815

[87] See the chapter on Prisons and Incarceration

[88] Black Lives Matter, https://blacklivesmatter.com/

[89] See the chapter on Education

[90] “The 14th Amendment and American Indians”, 14th Amendment and American Indians”, Ojibwa, Native American Netroots, August 4, 2010, https://nativeamericannetroots.net/diary/617

[91] See the chapter on Prisons and Incarceration

[92] “US voter suppression: why this Texas woman is facing five years' prison”, Ed Pilkington, The Guardian, August 28, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/aug/27/crime-of-voting-texas-woman-crystal-mason-five-years-prison

[93] “Universal Declaration of Human Rights”, United Nations, Accessed February 19, 2019, http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/index.html

[94] “Universal Declaration of Human Rights”, United for Human Rights, Accessed February 19, 2019, https://www.humanrights.com/what-are-human-rights/universal-declaration-of-human-rights/

[95] “Obama’s covert drone war in numbers: ten times more strikes than Bush”, Jessica Purkiss , Jack Serle, January 17, 2017, The Bureau of Investigative Journalism, https://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/stories/2017-01-17/obamas-covert-drone-war-in-numbers-ten-times-more-strikes-than-bush

[96] “Trump Just Gave Himself More Power to Kill in Secret: He reversed an Obama-era order requiring the annual publication of drone strikes undertaken by the United States.”, Conor Friedersdorf, The Atlantic, March 7, 2019, https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/03/trump-drone-strikes-order/584326/

[97] “Body Count Report Reveals At Least 1.3 Million Lives Lost to US-Led War on Terror”, Sarah Lazare,

March 26, 2015, Common Dreams, https://www.commondreams.org/news/2015/03/26/body-count-report-reveals-least-13-million-lives-lost-us-led-war-terror

[98] “Taibbi: The Legacy of the Iraq War”, Matt Taibbi, March 21, 2018, Rolling Stone, https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/taibbi-the-legacy-of-the-iraq-war-204470/

[99] See the chapter on Empire and its Agents

[100] “Gina Haspel, Trump’s Choice for C.I.A., Played Role in Torture Program”, Adam Goldman, The New York Times, March 13, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/13/us/politics/gina-haspel-cia-director-nominee-trump-torture-waterboarding.html

[101] “How a future Trump Cabinet member gave a serial sex abuser the deal of a lifetime”, Julie K. Brown, The Miami Herald, November 28, 2018, https://www.miamiherald.com/news/local/article220097825.html

[102] “This Man Is Serving More Than 13 Years In Prison Over Two Joints’ Worth Of Marijuana: “We live in a world where people who are living in disadvantaged environments face challenges and situations that seem to never turn out as they do for people in more privileged and un-challenged neighborhoods.””, Matt Ferner, The Huffington Post, August 14, 2015, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/bernard-noble-marijuana_us_55b6b838e4b0074ba5a5e160

[103] “Why Only One Top Banker Went to Jail for the Financial Crisis”, Jesse Eisinger, The New York Times, April 30, 2014, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/04/magazine/only-one-top-banker-jail-financial-crisis.html

[104] “Every minute, someone gets arrested for marijuana possession in the U.S.”, Christopher Ingraham, September 28, 2015, The Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/09/28/every-minute-someone-gets-arrested-for-marijuana-possession-in-the-u-s/?utm_term=.682f7eb59057

[105] “US charges Facebook with high-tech housing discrimination”, Mae Anderson and Barbara Ortutay, Ap Technology Writers Updated 5:43 pm PDT, Thursday, March 28, 2019, https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-fcc-has-fined-robocallers-208-million-its-collected-6-790-11553770803

[106] “Guantánamo Bay: 14 years of injustice”, Amnesty International, January 12, 2018, https://www.amnesty.org.uk/guantanamo-bay-human-rights

[107] “See the chapter on Wars and Interventions

[108] “Indefinite Detention: No Charges? No Trials? No Justice.”, ACLU, Accessed February 20, 2019, https://www.aclu.org/other/indefinite-detention

[109] Fact Sheet:  Extraordinary Rendition”, ACLU, Accessed February 17, 2019, https://www.aclu.org/other/fact-sheet-extraordinary-rendition

[110] “20 Extraordinary Facts about CIA Extraordinary Rendition and Secret Detention” Jonathan Horowitz & Stacy Cammarano, Open Society Foundations, February 5, 2013, https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/voices/20-extraordinary-facts-about-cia-extraordinary-rendition-and-secret-detention

[111] See the chapter on the Surveillance State

[112] “Special report: Rendition ordeal that raises new questions about secret trials: In 2004, Fatima Bouchar and her husband, Abdel Hakim Belhaj, were detained en route to the UK, and rendered to Libya. This is the story of their imprisonment, and the trail of evidence that reveals the involvement of the British government”, Ian Cobain, The Guardian, April 8, 2012, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/apr/08/special-report-britain-rendition-libya

[113] “USA: "You Don’t Have Any Rights Here”", Amnesty International, Accessed March 2, 2019, https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/research/2018/10/usa-treatment-of-asylum-seekers-southern-border/

[114] “Alabama Woman Who Joined ISIS Can’t Return Home, U.S. Says: Hoda Muthana was born in the U.S. around the time her father was a Yemeni diplomat, opening debate on her citizenship.”, Rukmini Callimachi and Alan Yuhas, New York Times, February 20, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/02/20/world/middleeast/isis-bride-hoda-muthana.html?module=inline

[115] “Married Immigrants Seeking Green Cards Are Now Targets for Deportation: People applying for legal status through their spouses are instead being detained.”, Noah Lanard, Mother Jones April 20, 2018, https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2018/04/married-immigrants-seeking-green-cards-are-now-targets-for-deportation/

[116] “Asset Forfeiture Reform”, Drug Policy Alliance, Accessed February 18, 2019, http://www.drugpolicy.org/issues/asset-forfeiture-reform

[117] “List of Schedule 1 Drugs” Medically reviewed by L. Anderson, PharmD, Drugs.com, Last updated on May 18, 2018, https://www.drugs.com/article/csa-schedule-1.html

[118] “The Government Is Classifying Too Many Documents: That overuse has wide-reaching consequences for our government—and for us as citizens.”, Elizabeth Goitein, The Nation, July 7, 2016, https://www.thenation.com/article/the-government-is-classifying-too-many-documents/

[119] “More Than 100 Arrested at Baton Rouge, Rochester Black Lives Matter Protests”, F. Brinley Bruton, Daniella Silva and Jon Schuppe, NBC News, July 9, 2016, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/blacklivesmatter-protest-rochester-police-arrest-74-demonstration-n606416

[120] “Elevating the 2016 Debate: Six million Americans are not allowed to vote”, Annie Gurvis, Urban Institute, October 4, 2016, https://www.urban.org/2016-analysis/six-million-americans-are-not-allowed-vote

[121] “Voter Suppression Is the New Old Normal: Massive purges of minority voters from state rolls will stain the 2018 elections. They won’t be the last.”, Vann R. Newkirk II, The Atlantic, October 24, 2018, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2018/10/2018-midterms-and-specter-voter-suppression/573826/

[122] “How Voter Suppression Works: Methods of Voter Suppression”, Dave Roos, How Stuff Works, Accessed February 20, 2019, https://people.howstuffworks.com/voter-suppression2.htm

[123] See the chapter on Government Corruption

[124] “America the Only Developed Country Without Universal Healthcare”, Stephen Lendman, Global Research, July 09, 2017, https://www.globalresearch.ca/america-the-only-developed-country-without-universal-healthcare/5598311

[125] “Countries With Universal Health Care: Universal health care is accessible in many countries across the world. Currently, 58 countries have universal health care”, Victor Kiprop, World Atlas, January 29, 2018, https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/countries-with-universal-health-care.html

[126] “6 charts show how much more men make than women”, Sonam Sheth, Shayanne Gal and Skye Gould, Business Insider, August 27, 2018, https://www.businessinsider.com/gender-wage-pay-gap-charts-2017-3

[127] “There's not a single US state where a minimum wage worker can afford a 2-bedroom rental, a report says”, Dakin Andone and Jessica Campisi, CNN, June 15, 2018, https://www.cnn.com/2018/06/14/us/minimum-wage-2-bedroom-trnd/index.html

[128] “Economic News Release: Union Members Summary, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, January 18, 2019, https://www.bls.gov/news.release/union2.nr0.htm

[129] See the chapter on Community, Family and Poverty

[130] See the chapter on Income and Wealth Inequity

[131] “The U.S. is the Most Overworked Developed Nation in the World”, G.E. Miller, 20 Something Finance, Last updated: January 2, 2018, https://20somethingfinance.com/american-hours-worked-productivity-vacation/

[132] “The government shutdown spotlights a bigger issue: 78% of US workers live paycheck to paycheck”, Emmie Martin, CNBC, January 9, 2019, https://www.cnbc.com/2019/01/09/shutdown-highlights-that-4-in-5-us-workers-live-paycheck-to-paycheck.html

[133] “Number of homeless students in U.S. has doubled since before the recession”, Lyndsey Layton and Emma Brown, September 14, 2015, The Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/number-of-us-homeless-students-has-doubled-since-before-the-recession/2015/09/14/0c1fadb6-58c2-11e5-8bb1-b488d231bba2_story.html?utm_term=.5cf3cb8ab658

[134] “Yes, People Die When They Don’t Have Access To Health Care:  One study in 2009 found 45,000 people died every year for lack of health insurance”, Arthur Delaney, May 8, 2017, The Huffington Post, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/people-die-without-health-care_us_5910b4e8e4b0104c7351257b

[135] “Who has dental benefits today?”, National Association of Dental Plans, http://www.nadp.org/Dental_Benefits_Basics/Dental_BB_1.aspx

[136] "Out-of-Pocket Spending in the Last Five Years of Life", A. S. Kelley, K. McGarry, S. Fahle, S. M. Marshall, Q. Du, J. S. Skinner, September 8, 2012, Journal of General Internal Medicine, 28 (2): 304–09, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3614143/

[137] "Toward Higher-Performance Health Systems: Adults' Health Care Experiences in Seven Countries, 2007", C. Schoen, R. Osborn, M. M. Doty, M. Bishop, J. Peugh, N. Murukutla, November 1, 2007, The Commonwealth Fund, http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/in-the-literature/2007/nov/toward-higher-performance-health-systems--adults-health-care-experiences-in-seven-countries--2007

[138] “Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households in 2016”, May 2017, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Page 1, https://www.federalreserve.gov/publications/files/2016-report-economic-well-being-us-households-201705.pdf

[139] “Here’s how much families have in retirement savings—and how much they actually need”, Kathleen Elkins, CNBC, Apr 23 2018, https://www.cnbc.com/2018/04/23/how-much-us-families-have-in-retirement-savings-and-how-much-they-need.html

[140] “Cruel and Unusual”, Clifton Leaf, Fortune, Updated: June 29, 2018, http://fortune.com/2018/06/28/trump-border-separations-cruel-and-unusual/

[141] “K-12 FACTS, Updated February 2016, Center for Education Reform, https://www.edreform.com/2012/04/k-12-facts/

[142] “11 Charts That Show Income Inequality Isn’t Getting Better Anytime Soon:  It’s no secret: More and more wealth is trickling up”, Dave Gilson, Edwin Rios, December 22, 2016, Mother Jones, http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2016/12/america-income-inequality-wealth-net-worth-charts/

[143] See the chapter on Income and Wealth Inequality

[144] “High U.S. Drug Prices Fuel Outrage, Innovation Debate: QuickTake”, Robert Langreth, Bloomberg, The Washington Post, May 11, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/high-us-drug-prices-fuel-outrage-innovation-debate-quicktake/2018/05/11/ce712a0e-5539-11e8-a6d4-ca1d035642ce_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.473efcdfb227

[145] “The 5 most expensive drugs in the United States”, Jen Christensen, CNN, May 12, 2018, https://edition.cnn.com/2018/05/11/health/most-expensive-prescription-drugs/index.html

[146] “Compare your finances to financial statistics for the average American household to see how you stack up”, Debt.com Education Center:  Personal Finance Statistics, https://www.debt.com/edu/personal-finance-statistics/

[147] “Fact Sheet:  Extraordinary Rendition”, ACLU, Accessed February 18, 2019, https://www.aclu.org/other/fact-sheet-extraordinary-rendition

[148] “20 Extraordinary Facts about CIA Extraordinary Rendition and Secret Detention” Jonathan Horowitz & Stacy Cammarano, Open Society Foundations, February 5, 2013, https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/voices/20-extraordinary-facts-about-cia-extraordinary-rendition-and-secret-detention

[149] See the chapter on Empire and Its Agents

[150] “The War in Africa the U.S. Military Won’t Admit It’s Fighting”, Bryan Maygers, The Huffington Post, Updated December 6, 2017, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/bryan-maygers/nick-turse-tomorrows-battlefield_b_7480360.html

[151] “The War in Africa the U.S. Military Won’t Admit It’s Fighting”, Bryan Maygers, The Huffington Post, Updated December 6, 2017, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/bryan-maygers/nick-turse-tomorrows-battlefield_b_7480360.html

[152] “US halts cooperation with UN on potential human rights violations: Exclusive: State department has ceased to respond to complaints from special rapporteurs in move that sends ‘dangerous message’ to other countries, Ed Pilkington, The Guardian, January 4, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/law/2019/jan/04/trump-administration-un-human-rights-violations

[153] “International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights”, United Nations, 1967, https://treaties.un.org/doc/Treaties/1976/03/19760323%2006-17%20AM/Ch_IV_04.pdf

[154] “United Nations Treaty Collections: Chapter IV, Human Rights, 4. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights”, https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?chapter=4&clang=_en&mtdsg_no=IV-4&src=IND#EndDec

[155] “U.S. reservations, declarations, and understandings, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 138 Cong. Rec. S4781-01 (daily ed., April 2, 1992).”, University of Minnesota Human Rights Library, Accessed February 19, 2019, http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/usdocs/civilres.html

[156] “International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)”, United Nations, 1967, https://treaties.un.org/doc/Treaties/1976/01/19760103%2009-57%20PM/Ch_IV_03.pdf

[157] “United Nations Treaty Collections: Chapter IV, Human Rights, 3. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, New York, 16 December 1966, https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=IV-3&chapter=4&clang=_en

[158] “United Nations Treaty Collection:  Chapter IV, Human Rights, 1. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide”, https://treaties.un.org/doc/Treaties/1951/01/19510112%2008-12%20PM/Ch_IV_1p.pdf

[159] “United Nations Treaty Collection:  Chapter IV, Human Rights, 1. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide”, https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-1&chapter=4&clang=_en

[160] “United Nations Treaty Collection:  Chapter IV, Human Rights, 2. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination”, https://treaties.un.org/doc/Treaties/1969/03/19690312%2008-49%20AM/Ch_IV_2p.pdf

[161] “United Nations Treaty Collection:  Chapter IV, Human Rights, 2. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination”, https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-2&chapter=4&clang=_en

[162] “United Nations Treaty Collection:  Chapter IV, Human Rights, 6. Convention on the non-applicability of statutory limitations to war crimes and crimes against humanity”, https://treaties.un.org/doc/Treaties/1970/11/19701111%2002-40%20AM/Ch_IV_6p.pdf

[163] “United Nations Treaty Collection:  Chapter IV, Human Rights, 6. Convention on the non-applicability of statutory limitations to war crimes and crimes against humanity”, https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-6&chapter=4&clang=_en

[164] “United Nations Treaty Collection:  Chapter IV, Human Rights, 9. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment”, https://treaties.un.org/doc/Treaties/1987/06/19870626%2002-38%20AM/Ch_IV_9p.pdf

[165] “United Nations Treaty Collection:  Chapter IV, Human Rights, 9. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment”, https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-9&chapter=4&clang=_en

[166] “Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women New York, 18 December 1979”, United Nations Human Rights, Office of the High Commissioner, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CEDAW.aspx

[167] “United Nations Treaty Collection:  Chapter IV, Human Rights, 8. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women”, https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-8&chapter=4&lang=en

[168] “United Nations Treaty Collection:  Chapter IV, Human Rights, 11. Convention on the Rights of the Child”, https://www.unicef.org.uk/what-we-do/un-convention-child-rights/

[169] “United Nations Treaty Collection:  11. Convention on the Rights of the Child”, https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-11&chapter=4&clang=_en

[170] “Certified True Copies (CTCs) of Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General:  Chapter V, Refugees and Stateless Persons, 5 . Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, https://treaties.un.org/doc/Treaties/1967/10/19671004%2007-06%20AM/Ch_V_5p.pdf

[171] “United Nations Treaty Collection:  Chapter V, Refugees and Stateless Persons, 5 . Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, https://treaties.un.org/pages/ShowMTDSGDetails.aspx?src=UNTSONLINE&tabid=2&mtdsg_no=V-5&chapter=5&lang=en#Participants

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[172] “Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities”, United Nations Human Rights: Office of the High Commissioner: Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/CRPD/Pages/ConventionRightsPersonsWithDisabilities.aspx

[173] “United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 15. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities”, https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-15&chapter=4&lang=en

[174] “United Nations Treaty Collection:  Chapter V, Refugees and Stateless Persons, 5 . Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CMW.aspx

[175] “United Nations Treaty Collection:  Chapter V, Refugees and Stateless Persons, 5 . Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, New York, 31 January 1967, https://treaties.un.org/pages/ShowMTDSGDetails.aspx?src=UNTSONLINE&tabid=2&mtdsg_no=V-5&chapter=5&lang=en#Participants

[176] “International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance”, United Nations Human Rights: Office of the High Commissioner: Committee on Enforced Disappearances, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/CED/Pages/ConventionCED.aspx

[177] “16. International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance”, United Nations Treaty Collection, Chapter IV: Human Rights, https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-16&chapter=4&lang=en

[178] “Treaties, States Parties and Commentaries:  Geneva Conventions of 1949 and Additional Protocols, and their Commentaries”, International Committee of the Red Cross, https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/vwTreaties1949.xsp

[179] “Mine Ban Treaty”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/mine-ban-treaty

[180] “International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (ICOC)”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/international-1-of-conduct-against-ballistic-missile-proliferation

[181] “Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/missile-technology-control-regime

[182] “Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/missile-technology-control-regime

[183] “Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/biological-weapons-convention

[184] “Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/chemical-weapons-convention

[185] “Convention on Cluster Munitions”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/convention-on-cluster-munitions

[186] “Arms Trade Treaty”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/arms-trade-treaty

[187] “Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/comprehensive-test-ban-treaty

[188] “Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT)” Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/limited-test-ban-treaty 

[189] “Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET)”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/peaceful-nuclear-explosions-treaty

[190] “Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT)”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/threshold-test-ban-treaty

[191] “African Nuclear-Weapons-Free Zone Treaty”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/african-nuclear-weapons-free-zone-treaty

[192] “Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/intermediate-range-nuclear-forces-treaty

[193] “International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (ICOC)”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/international-code-of-conduct-against-ballistic-missile-proliferation

[194] “New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/new-strategic-arms-reduction-treaty

[195] “Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT)”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/nuclear-nonproliferation-treaty

[196] “Seabed Arms Control Treaty”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/seabed-arms-control-treaty

[197] “South Pacific Nuclear Weapons Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga)”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/south-pacific-nuclear-weapons-free-zone-treaty

[198] “Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I)”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/strategic-arms-limitation-talks

[199] “Strategic Arms Limitation Talks II (SALT II)”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/strategic-arms-limitation-talks-ii

[200] “Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I (START I)”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/strategic-arms-reduction-treaty-i

[201] “Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty II (START II)”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/strategic-arms-reduction-treaty-ii

[202] “Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT)”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/strategic-offensive-reductions-treaty

[203] “Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/treaty-prohibition-nuclear-weapons

[204] “Open Skies Treaty”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/open-skies-treaty

[205] “Outer Space Treaty”, Arms Control Association, Accessed February 25, 2019, https://www.armscontrol.org/treaties/outer-space-treaty

[206] “Nikki Haley Has New Beef With the UN—This Time Over Poverty in the U.S.”, By Natasha Bach, Fortune, June 22, 2018, http://fortune.com/2018/06/22/nikki-haley-un-report-us-poverty/

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